My Paper (Karya Ilmiah)

Effect of Processing of Palm Oil Petiole on Palatability in Bali Cows (Bos sondaecus)
M Afdal12 S Syarif1 A Kasim2
1Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Animal Husbandry University of Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Science Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: bandatanang@yahoo.com


 Palm oil petiole (POP) is a pruning by-product from palm oil plantations. POP is the stalk of the palm oil frond (POF) without the leaflets and the outer layer.  By weight, it contributed about 30 percent of POF. POP was a possible alternative for POF in feeding Bali cows (Bos sondaecus) since Bali cows we observed to reject fresh POF.  Central Bureau of Indonesian Statistics (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia which is equivalent to 3,260,810 t of POP.  POF are successfully used as feed for Bos taurus and Bos indicus and there are a lot of studies being done, especially in Malaysia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787, 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. However, there is no information on the nutritive value of POP and its palatability in Bali cows. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritive value of POP, and palatability of POP types by Bali cows when processed in several forms. read more (word) Proceeding British Sociecty of Animal Science 2009 p 093 (pdf).





M. Afdal1 and Khasrad2 

1 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia, bandatanang@yahoo.com

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Andalas University Kampus Limau Manis Padang Indonesia. Khasrad@unand.ac.id

 ABSTRACT pdf. A study was done to examine the effects of concentrate level and the length offattening on the daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Pesisir Cows. Twelve cows between 2 and 2.5 years old with live weights of 126 to 170 kg were used. The study used a randomized block design in factorial arrangement with two factors. The first factor was concentrate level (CL) with either 50 % concentrate and 50 % of ammoniated rice straw or 75 % concentrate and 25 % ammoniated rice straw (defined as Al and A2, respectively). The second factor was the duration of fattening, either 3 or 4 months (Bl and B2, respectively). There were significant effects of CL on DWG (PO.05), no significant (P>0.05) effect of LF on DWG and no CL x LF interaction on DWG. There were no significant (P>0.05) effects of CL on DMI but LF significantly affected (P<0.05) on DMI. There were no interaction effects of CL and LF on DMI. CL significantly (PO.05) decreased FCR while LF did not significantly affect FCR. There were no significant effects of interaction between CL and LF on FCR

Keywords: Pesisir Cow, Concentrate, Length Of Feeding, Daily Weight Gain, Consumption,

Feed Conversion

 The potency of Asystasia gangetica and Passiflora foetica L for goat feed

M. Afdal1, Roslinda1, S. Syarief1 and D.I. Givens2 

1Faculty of Animal Husbandly, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia 2Centre for Dairy Research. The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236,

Reading RG6 6AT, UK -.

Introduction pdf

Asystasiu gangetica (AG) and Passiflora foetica L (PF) are kind of wild plants that usually grow in area such as rubber, palm oil plantation, or in any other area like a long the side of padi field, a long the road. Reid (1990) mentioned that mostly there are 10,000 species of wild grass. These. might be part of those species. Physiologically these plants can be classified as roughage. Therefore, these might be potentially, used as feed ruminant feed, in Jambi. Indonesia. Few farmers have fed these plants to goat, cow and buffalo as animal feed but it was not optimal. The objective of this study was to examine the nutrient content of AG and PF and the palatability 01, these plants fed to the kacang goat (local coat) (KG).


 Evaluation of the Indonesian coffee pulp as a ruminant feed using the Reading Pressure Technique.

S. Fakhri1,2,3, A. Latief2, R. Murni2, S.D. Widyawati2, M. Afdal1,2,3 and F.L. Mould3

1ADAS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford upon-Avon, CV37 9RQ, UK

2Faculty of Animal Science, The University of Jambi, Campus Mandalo Darat, Jambi, Indonesia 36361

3Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, UK

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2001p.109


 Indonesia is the world’s third largest producers of coffee with the residual coffee pulp being included in ruminant diets. However, coffee pulp has a low palatability although studies have shown that this can be increased by ensiling. In addition, coffee pulp contains anti-nutritive factors such as caffeine and tannins. Washing the residue with hot water reduces caffein concentration by about 90 % (Kiflewahid, 1982). In this study, the effects of washing and ensilage on the degradability profiles were examined by estimating gas release using the Reading Pressure Technique.

2. Variatio in vitro hydrolytic activity of rumen and faecal inocula.

M. Afdal1, F.L. Mould2, C. Rymer1, E. Owen2, and D.I. Givens1

1ADADS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford-on –Avon, CV37 9RQ, U.K.

2Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 237, Reading, RG6 6AR, U.K.

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2002 

Introduction Considerable efforts have been made regarding the use of faecal material to provide a microbial inoculum for in vitro feed evaluation systems. However total gas production, rate of gas release and the extent of degradation of feeds incubated using faecal inoculum are lower than those incubated in a rumen fluid medium. It has been suggested that this is due to lower microbial activity, a consequence of the different microflora and reduced microbial numbers (e.g. Mauricio, 1999). Microbial populations are dynamic so, as their enzyme activity profiles change rapidly, little information is obtained from examining these. However, their hydrolytic activity as reflected by their ability to degrade specific substrates can be simply measured and provides a potential method with which to assess the quality of inocula with respect to their use in in vitro systems. The data presented here are from a larger study in which the differences between the hydrolytic activity of faecal material and rumen contents as influenced by the time of sampling were assessed in vitro .

3. The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of sheep faeces. Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2003

Introduction The use of faecal inoculum in in vitro feed evaluation methods was examined by Balfe (1985). However, there is limited information concerning the chemical composition of faeces and factors affecting this. The chemical composition of faeces may reflect the microbial population and hence its fermentative activity. A knowledge of the faecal composition is essential as this affects the quality of faecal inoculum. The objective of this work was therefore to study the relationships between diet and the chemical composition of faeces using data obtained from sheep.

My paper has been quoted with this article below
















Alternative methodologies – stretching the in vitro box 

Animal Feed Science and Technology 123–124 (2005) 501–515

  1. Introduction The two-stage methodology of Tilley and Terry (1963), which provides an in vitro estimate of in vivo digestibility, can be considered one of the great advances in ruminant feedstuff evaluation. Modifications by Goering and Van Soest (1970) led to the IVTDMD (in vitro true dry matter (DM) digestibility) assay that is still widely used. However, as the extent of rumen degradation of a feedstuff is the product of ruminal residence time and rate of degradation, these methodologies are deficient in that they provide no kinetic information on degradation. It is, therefore, possible for two feeds to have similar end-point degradation values, but different rates of degradation. This is of fundamental importance, as feeds with higher degradation rates tend to be consumed in greater quantity. In addition, as these assays are generally made after an extended incubation period (usually 48–96 h), it is possible that degradation is over-estimated and subtle differences among similar feeds lost. 













Beneficial Microbe


Copper isotope fractionation during its interaction with soil

and aquatic microorganisms and metal oxy(hydr)oxides:

Possible structural control

O.S. Pokrovsky a,*, J. Viers a, E.E. Emnova b, E.I. Kompantseva c, R. Freydier a

a Laboratoire de Me´canismes et Transfert en Ge´ologie (LMTG), Universite´ de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD,

OMP, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France

b Institute of Genetics and Plant Physiology, Moldavian Academy of Science, Kishinev, Moldavia

c Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

Received 4 June 2007; accepted in revised form 23 January 2008; available online 31 January 2008

Pdf Abastract This work is aimed at quantifying the main environmental factors controlling isotope fractionation of Cu during its adsorption from aqueous solutions onto common organic (bacteria, algae) and inorganic (oxy(hydr)oxide) surfaces. Adsorption of Cu on aerobic rhizospheric (Pseudomonas aureofaciens CNMN PsB-03) and phototrophic aquatic (Rhodobacter sp. f-7bl, Gloeocapsa sp. f-6gl) bacteria, uptake of Cu by marine (Skeletonema costatum) and freshwater (Navicula minima, Achnanthidium minutissimum and Melosira varians) diatoms, and Cu adsorption onto goethite (FeOOH) and gibbsite (AlOOH) were studied using a batch reaction as a function of pH, copper concentration in solution and time of exposure. Stable isotopes of copper in selected filtrates were measured using Neptune multicollector ICP-MS. Irreversible incorporation of Cu in cultured diatom cells at pH 7.5–8.0 did not produce any isotopic shift between the cell and solution (D65/63Cu(solid-solution)) within ±0.2&. Accordingly, no systematic variation was observed during Cu adsorption on anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (Rhodobacter sp.), cyanobacteria (Gloeocapsa sp.) or soil aerobic exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (P. aureofaciens) in circumneutral pH (4–6.5) and various exposure times (3 min to 48 h): D65Cu(solid-solution) = 0.0 ± 0.4&. In contrast, when Cu was adsorbed at pH 1.8–3.5 on the cell surface of soil the bacterium P. aureofacienshaving abundant or poor EPS depending on medium composition, yielded a significant enrichment of the cell surface in the light isotope (D65Cu (solid-solution) = _1.2 ± 0.5&). Inorganic reactions of Cu adsorption at pH 4–6 produced the opposite isotopic offset: enrichment of the oxy(hydr)oxide surface in the heavy isotope with D65Cu(solid-solution) equals 1.0 ± 0.25& and 0.78 ± 0.2& for gibbsite and goethite, respectively. The last result corroborates the recent works of Mathur et al. [Mathur R., Ruiz J., Titley S., Liermann L., Buss H. and Brantley S. (2005) Cu isotopic fractionation in the supergene environment with and without bacteria. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 5233–5246] and Balistrieri et al. [Balistrieri L. S., Borrok D. M., Wanty R. B. and Ridley W. I. (2008) Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorhous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 311–328] who reported heavy Cu isotope enrichment onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide and on metal hydroxide precipitates on the external membranes of Fe-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. Although measured isotopic fractionation does not correlate with the relative thermodynamic stability of surface complexes, it can be related to their structures as found with available EXAFS data. Indeed, strong, bidentate, inner-sphere complexes presented by tetrahedrally coordinated Cu on metal oxide surfaces are likely to result in enrichment of the heavy isotope on the surface compared to aqueous solution. The outer-sphere, monodentate complex, which is likely to form between Cu2+ and surface phosphoryl groups of bacteria in acidic solutions, has a higher number of neighbors and longer bond distances compared to inner-sphere bidentate complexes with carboxyl groups formed on bacterial and diatom surfaces in circumneutral solutions. As a result, in acidic solution, light isotopes become more enriched on bacterial surfaces (as opposed to the surrounding aqueous medium) than they do in neutral solution. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate important isotopic fractionation of copper in both organic and inorganic systems and provide a firm basis for using Cu isotopes for tracing metal transport in earth-surface aquatic systems. It follows that both adsorption on oxides in a wide range of pH values and adsorption on bacteria in acidic solutions are capable of producing a significant (up to 2.5–3& (±0.1–0.15&)) isotopic offset. At the same time, Cu interaction with common soil and aquatic bacteria, as well as marine and freshwater diatoms, at 4 < pH < 8 yields an isotopic shift of only ±0.2–0.3&, which is not related to Cu concentration in solution, surface loading, the duration of the experiment, or the type of aquatic microorganisms.

Biosorption of Cr(VI) by immobilized biomass of two indigenous

strains of cyanobacteria isolated from metal contaminated soil

Kamra Anjana, Anubha Kaushik , Bala Kiran, Rani Nisha

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar

University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125 001, India

Received 16 November 2006; received in revised form 19 February 2007;

accepted 19 February 2007 Available online 23 February 2007

Pdf Abstract Biosorption of Cr(VI) using native strains of cyanobacteria from metal contaminated soil in the premises of textile mill has been reported in this paper. Biosorption was studied as a function of pH (1–5), contact time (5–180 min) and initial chromium ion concentration (5–20 mg/l) to find out the maximum biosorption capacity of alginate immobilized Nostoc calcicola HH-12 and Chroococcus sp. HH-11. The optimum conditions for Cr(VI) biosorption are almost same for the two strains (pH 3–4, contact time 30 min and initial chromium concentration of 20 mg/l) however, the biomass of Chroococcus sp. HH-11 was found to be more suitable for the development of an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater, as it showed higher values of qm and Kf, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters. Both the isotherm models were suitable for describing the biosorption of Cr(VI) by the cyanobacterial biosorbents.


Keywords: Algae; Heavy metal; Adsorption isotherm


Herb for Animal

Effect of Essential Oil Active Compounds on Rumen Microbial

Fermentation and Nutrient Flow in In Vitro Systems

L. Castillejos, S. Calsamiglia,1 and A. Ferret

Grup de Recerca en Nutricio´ , Maneig i Benestar Animal, Departament de Cie`ncia Animal i dels Aliments,

Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

pdf ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several essential oil active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation. In the first experiment, 4 doses (5, 50, 500, and 5,000 mg/L) of 5 essential oil compounds were evaluated using in vitro 24-h batch culture of rumen fluid with a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were control (CON), eugenol (EUG), guaiacol, limonene, thymol (THY), and vanillin. After 24 h, the pH was determined, and samples were collected to analyze ammonia N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The highest dose of all compounds decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. Eugenol at 5 mg/L tended to reduce the proportion of acetate and the acetate to propionate ratio, at 50 and 500 mg/L tended to reduce ammonia N concentration, and at 500 mg/L reduced the proportion of propionate and branchedchain VFA concentration, without affecting total VFA concentration. All other treatments had minor effects or changes occurred only after total VFA concentration decreased. In the second experiment, 8 dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1,320 mL) were used in 3 replicated periods (6 d of adaptation and 3 d of sampling) to study the effects of THY and EUG on rumen microbial fermentation. Fermenters were fed 95 g/d of DM of a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were CON, 10 mg/L of monensin (positive control), and 5, 50, or 500 mg/L of THY and EUG, and were randomly assigned to fermenters within periods. During the last 3 d of each period, samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after the morning feeding and analyzed for peptides, amino acids, and ammonia N concentrations, and total and individual VFA concentrations. Monensin changed the VFA profile as expected, but inhibited nutrient digestion. Eugenol and THY decreased total VFA concentration and changed the VFA profile, and only 5 mg/L of THY tended to reduce the proportion of acetate, increased the proportion of butyrate, and increased the large peptidesNconcentration without decreasing total VFA concentration. Most of these essential oil compounds demonstrated their antimicrobial activity by decreasing total VFA concentration at high doses. However, EUG in batch fermentation and 5 mg/L of THY in continuous culture modified the VFA profile without decreasing total VFA concentration, and EUG in batch fermentation decreased ammonia N concentration.

Key words: essential oil, thymol, eugenol, rumen fermentation



Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde

and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation

in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet1

P. W. Cardozo,* S. Calsamiglia,*2 A. Ferret,* and C. Kamel†

*Animal Nutrition, Management, and Welfare Research Group, Departament de Cie`ncia

Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain;

†Pancosma SA, 01200-Bellegarde-sur-Valserine, Cedex, France

pdf ABSTRACT: Four Holstein heifers (360 ± 22 and 450 ± 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 × 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and AEX and CIE1 in combination; and Exp. 2, no additive, anise oil (2 g/d), capsicum oil (1 g/d), and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d). Heifers were fed a 90:10 concentrate:barley straw diet (16% CP; 25% NDF) for ad libitum intake. Each period consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 6 d for sampling. On d 16 to 18, DM and water intakes were measured. On d 19 to 21 ruminal contents were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding to determine ruminal pH and the concentrations of VFA, L-lactate, large peptides, small peptides plus AA (SPep+AA), and ammonia N. On d 20 and 21, samples of ruminal fluid were collected at 0 and 3 h after feeding to determine protozoal counts. In Exp. 1, CIE1 and AEX decreased (P< 0.05) total DMI, concentrate DMI, and water intake. The increase (P < 0.05) in SPep+AA and the decrease (P < 0.05) in ammonia N when supplementing CIE1 suggest that deamination was inhibited. Treatment AEX increased (P < 0.05) the acetate to propionate ratio, which is less efficient for beef production. Treatment CIE1 increased (P< 0.05) counts of holotrichs. Effects of AEX and CIE1 were not additive for many of the measured metabolites. In Exp. 2, treatments had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA concentration, and butyrate proportion. The capsicum oil treatment increased (P < 0.05) DMI, water intake, and SPep+AA N concentration and decreased (P < 0.05) acetate proportion, branched-chain VFA concentration, and large peptide N concentration. The cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d) treatment decreased (P < 0.05) water intake, acetate proportion, branchedchain VFA, L-lactate, and ammonia N concentrations

and increased (P < 0.05) propionate proportion and SPep+AA N concentration. The anise oil treatment decreased (P < 0.05) acetate to propionate ratio, branchedchain VFA and ammonia N concentrations, and protozoal counts. The results indicate that at the doses used a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, anise oil, and capsicum oil may be useful as modifiers of rumen fermentation in beef production systems.

Key words: plant extract, rumen fermentation


Effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

A.V. Chaves a,b, K. Stanford c, L.L. Gibson d, T.A. McAllister b, C. Benchaar a,

a Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre,

P.O. Box 90 STN Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z3

b Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 c Alberta Agriculture and Food, 5401-1st Ave. S. Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 d Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, 6000 C&E Trail, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada T4L 1W1

pdf Abstract: Effects of essential oil compounds (EOC) on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics were determined using 60 lambs (24.6±0.77 kg initial live weight, LW) fed either a barley- or corn grain-based diet without supplementation (control), or supplemented with 0.2 g/kg (DM basis) of carvacrol (CAR) or cinnamaldehyde (CIN). The experimental diets were arranged as a 2×3 factorial with 11-week periods and fed to lambs ad libitum. Ruminal pH tended (P=0.06) to be lower and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was higher (P<0.01) for barley- versus corn-based diets. Addition of EOC reduced (P=0.02) ruminal pH and increased (P=0.03) total VFA concentration versus the control. Acetate and propionate molar proportions and ammonia concentration did not differ among treatments. Inclusion of EOC in barley- or corn-based diets did not alter dry matter intake or average daily gain of lambs. Lambs fed the control diets tended (P=0.10) to have lighter livers than those fed diets containing EOC. Neither type of grain nor inclusion of EOC substantially affected sensory attributes of lamb sirloins.

Keywords: Carvacrol; Cinnamaldehyde; Ruminal fermentation; Growth performance; Carcass quality



Daya Cerna Jagung dan Rumput sebagai Pakan Rusa (Cervus Timorensis)

R. Garsetiasih

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Bogor


The experiment was done on two couples of deer to determine digestilibities and consumption of grass and corn. Each heads of deers of 12-14 months, each couple was managed on difference model of stable (mini ranch and traditional stable) the grass was kept available to deers during the periods of observation and corn was given every two days (250 g). Description analysis and Tillman et al. formula (1984) were implemented to know the level of consumption and digestibility of feed on difference model of stable. Quantitativelly, the deers on the mini ranch were the best; the digestilibities of its constituents were 58.4% crude fibre; 58.9% organic matter and 47.7% dry matter, digestilibities on the tradisional stable were 49.2% crude fibre; 52.2% organic matter and 50.7% dry matter. Feed consumption of the deers on the mini ranch and traditional stable were 1.570 kg and 1.440 kg.

Key words: Deer, digestibility, corn, grass.

Cinnamon (Kulit Manis)

Antimicrobial activities of Eugenol and Cinnamaldehyde against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori pdf

A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial
studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils,
oleoresins and their constituents pdf

Aldehydic components of Cinnamon bark extract suppresses

RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation pdf








From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

pdf (With One Text-figure)

A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids.










From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

(With One Text-figure)

pdf A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids. (Bahasa Indonesia)

Rumen Microbiology

Method for Measuring Gas Production Kinetics

D.R. Mertens and P.J. Weimer

Introduction (pdf)

Methodology can play a critical role in the measurement of digestion kinetics, especially when the objective is to define kinetic parameters for feeds when formulating rations or modeling animal responses. Measurement of gas production kinetics provides the opportunity to evaluate the rate of digestion of the soluble, more rapidly fermenting fractions of feeds. However, differences among procedures that have little impact on digestion of dry matter after 48 h of incubation may have dramatic effects on fermentation of soluble matter during the first 20 h. Our objective was to develop a method for measuring the kinetics of gas production that would minimize any detrimental effects associated with the in vitro system and provide estimates of digestion kinetics that can be used to both describe feeds for ration formulation systems and provide parameters for models of ruminal digestion. (Bahasa Indonesia)




Methane Emission

An overview of the methane emission from ruminant

in Jambi Province, Indonesia

M. Afdal

Faculty of Animal Husbandry Jambi University kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361 Indonesia

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan 43300 Malaysia




Jambi Province is an area situated in the central part of Sumatra Island. Geographically is located between 00 45′ to 20 45′ Latitude South and 1010 10′ to 1040 55′ Longitude East. Jambi Province is separated by Riau Province in the north, Malacca strait in the east, West Sumatra in the west and South Sumatra in the south. The width of Jambi Province is 53.534 km2 that consists of ( more read. pdf).

A Strategy for Reducing Methane Emissions

Judith Bates, AEA Technology plc

156 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 ORA, UK.


Methane is an important greenhouse gas whose concentration in the atmosphere has more than doubled since pre-industrial times. It is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but due to its shorter atmospheric lifetime (of 12 years) it is estimated that global emissions would only need to be reduced by about 8% from current levels to stabilize methane concentrations at today’s levels. This is a much smaller percentage reduction than those required to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of the other major greenhouse gases, CO2 and N20.

The main source of methane emissions within the EU is the agricultural sector, where emissions arise mainly from enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock, but also from livestock manure. The other major source is landfills, while coal mining and gas production and distribution are smaller, but still significant contributions. There are a range of possible measures for the reduction of emissions from each of these sectors, varying from technological options such as the collection and combustion of landfill gas, or the recovery and use of methane from animal waste, through to more general measures, often of a longer term nature, such as a reduction in the amount of organic waste going to landfill, or a reduction in livestock numbers. For some sources there are still significant uncertainties in emission factors, which make the development and assessment of abatement options difficult. In addition, there is a lack of data on the cost-effectiveness of many actions and measures. Any strategy for reducing emissions is 246 thus likely to need to combine measures to encourage the deployment of proven techniques, and to encourage research into the cost-effectiveness of options, and to improve knowledge of emissions factors and processes for some sources. This paper discusses the main options for the reduction of methane emissions and briefly summarizes the strategy paper recently prepared on this subject by the European Commission.





Rajo Tigo Selo


Rabu, 11/06/2008 10:16 WIB



Rajo Tigo Selo merupakan sebuah institusi tertinggi dalam kerajaan Pagaruyung yang dalam tambo adat disebut Limbago Rajo. Tiga orang raja masing-masing terdiri dari Raja Alam, Raja Adat dan Raja Ibadat yang berasal dari satu keturunan. Ketiga raja dalam berbagai tulisan tentang kerajaan Melayu Minangkabau ditafsirkan sebagai satu orang raja. Itulah sebabnya sejarah mencatat bahwa raja Melayu sewaktu didatangi Mahisa Anabrang dari Singosari yang memimpin ekspesidi Pamalayu bernama Tribuana Raja Mauli Warmadewa. Arti kata tersebut adalah tiga raja penguasa bumi yang berasal dari keluarga Mauli Warmadewa. baca selanjutnya

Yang Di Pertuan Sultan Alam Muningsyah

Rabu, 11/06/2008 10:17 WIB

Tuanku Raja Muning Alamsyah atau juga yang disebut Yang Dipertuan Sultan Alam Muningsyah adalah raja alam Pagaruyung yang secara luar biasa selamat dari tragedi pembunuhan di Koto Tangah, Tanah Datar pada tahun 1809 dalam masa Perang Paderi berkecamuk di Minangkabau. Tahun terjadinya tragedi ini dipertikaikan.

Christine Dobin mencatatkan dalam Kebangkitan Islam Dalam Ekonomi Petani Yang Sedang Berubah, (Inis, Jakarta 1992) tragedi tersebut terjadi pada tahun 1815, sebagaimana yang juga ditulis Rusli Amran dalam Sumatera Barat Hingga Plakat Panjang, (Sinar Harapan, Jakarta 1981). (Baca selanjutnya)

Disarikan oleh : Puti Reno Raudha Thaib)