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Effect of Essential Oil Active Compounds on Rumen Microbial

Fermentation and Nutrient Flow in In Vitro Systems

L. Castillejos, S. Calsamiglia,1 and A. Ferret

Grup de Recerca en Nutricio´ , Maneig i Benestar Animal, Departament de Cie`ncia Animal i dels Aliments,

Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

pdf ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several essential oil active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation. In the first experiment, 4 doses (5, 50, 500, and 5,000 mg/L) of 5 essential oil compounds were evaluated using in vitro 24-h batch culture of rumen fluid with a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were control (CON), eugenol (EUG), guaiacol, limonene, thymol (THY), and vanillin. After 24 h, the pH was determined, and samples were collected to analyze ammonia N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The highest dose of all compounds decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. Eugenol at 5 mg/L tended to reduce the proportion of acetate and the acetate to propionate ratio, at 50 and 500 mg/L tended to reduce ammonia N concentration, and at 500 mg/L reduced the proportion of propionate and branchedchain VFA concentration, without affecting total VFA concentration. All other treatments had minor effects or changes occurred only after total VFA concentration decreased. In the second experiment, 8 dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1,320 mL) were used in 3 replicated periods (6 d of adaptation and 3 d of sampling) to study the effects of THY and EUG on rumen microbial fermentation. Fermenters were fed 95 g/d of DM of a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were CON, 10 mg/L of monensin (positive control), and 5, 50, or 500 mg/L of THY and EUG, and were randomly assigned to fermenters within periods. During the last 3 d of each period, samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after the morning feeding and analyzed for peptides, amino acids, and ammonia N concentrations, and total and individual VFA concentrations. Monensin changed the VFA profile as expected, but inhibited nutrient digestion. Eugenol and THY decreased total VFA concentration and changed the VFA profile, and only 5 mg/L of THY tended to reduce the proportion of acetate, increased the proportion of butyrate, and increased the large peptidesNconcentration without decreasing total VFA concentration. Most of these essential oil compounds demonstrated their antimicrobial activity by decreasing total VFA concentration at high doses. However, EUG in batch fermentation and 5 mg/L of THY in continuous culture modified the VFA profile without decreasing total VFA concentration, and EUG in batch fermentation decreased ammonia N concentration.

Key words: essential oil, thymol, eugenol, rumen fermentation

 

 

Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde

and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation

in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet1

P. W. Cardozo,* S. Calsamiglia,*2 A. Ferret,* and C. Kamel†

*Animal Nutrition, Management, and Welfare Research Group, Departament de Cie`ncia

Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain;

†Pancosma SA, 01200-Bellegarde-sur-Valserine, Cedex, France

pdf ABSTRACT: Four Holstein heifers (360 ± 22 and 450 ± 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 × 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and AEX and CIE1 in combination; and Exp. 2, no additive, anise oil (2 g/d), capsicum oil (1 g/d), and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d). Heifers were fed a 90:10 concentrate:barley straw diet (16% CP; 25% NDF) for ad libitum intake. Each period consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 6 d for sampling. On d 16 to 18, DM and water intakes were measured. On d 19 to 21 ruminal contents were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding to determine ruminal pH and the concentrations of VFA, L-lactate, large peptides, small peptides plus AA (SPep+AA), and ammonia N. On d 20 and 21, samples of ruminal fluid were collected at 0 and 3 h after feeding to determine protozoal counts. In Exp. 1, CIE1 and AEX decreased (P< 0.05) total DMI, concentrate DMI, and water intake. The increase (P < 0.05) in SPep+AA and the decrease (P < 0.05) in ammonia N when supplementing CIE1 suggest that deamination was inhibited. Treatment AEX increased (P < 0.05) the acetate to propionate ratio, which is less efficient for beef production. Treatment CIE1 increased (P< 0.05) counts of holotrichs. Effects of AEX and CIE1 were not additive for many of the measured metabolites. In Exp. 2, treatments had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA concentration, and butyrate proportion. The capsicum oil treatment increased (P < 0.05) DMI, water intake, and SPep+AA N concentration and decreased (P < 0.05) acetate proportion, branched-chain VFA concentration, and large peptide N concentration. The cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d) treatment decreased (P < 0.05) water intake, acetate proportion, branchedchain VFA, L-lactate, and ammonia N concentrations

and increased (P < 0.05) propionate proportion and SPep+AA N concentration. The anise oil treatment decreased (P < 0.05) acetate to propionate ratio, branchedchain VFA and ammonia N concentrations, and protozoal counts. The results indicate that at the doses used a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, anise oil, and capsicum oil may be useful as modifiers of rumen fermentation in beef production systems.

Key words: plant extract, rumen fermentation

 

Effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

A.V. Chaves a,b, K. Stanford c, L.L. Gibson d, T.A. McAllister b, C. Benchaar a,

a Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre,

P.O. Box 90 STN Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z3

b Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 c Alberta Agriculture and Food, 5401-1st Ave. S. Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 d Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, 6000 C&E Trail, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada T4L 1W1

pdf Abstract: Effects of essential oil compounds (EOC) on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics were determined using 60 lambs (24.6±0.77 kg initial live weight, LW) fed either a barley- or corn grain-based diet without supplementation (control), or supplemented with 0.2 g/kg (DM basis) of carvacrol (CAR) or cinnamaldehyde (CIN). The experimental diets were arranged as a 2×3 factorial with 11-week periods and fed to lambs ad libitum. Ruminal pH tended (P=0.06) to be lower and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was higher (P<0.01) for barley- versus corn-based diets. Addition of EOC reduced (P=0.02) ruminal pH and increased (P=0.03) total VFA concentration versus the control. Acetate and propionate molar proportions and ammonia concentration did not differ among treatments. Inclusion of EOC in barley- or corn-based diets did not alter dry matter intake or average daily gain of lambs. Lambs fed the control diets tended (P=0.10) to have lighter livers than those fed diets containing EOC. Neither type of grain nor inclusion of EOC substantially affected sensory attributes of lamb sirloins.

Keywords: Carvacrol; Cinnamaldehyde; Ruminal fermentation; Growth performance; Carcass quality

 

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Effects of palm oil and calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids in fattening diets on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of lambs

T. Mansoa,, T. Castro b, A.R. Mantec´on c, V. Jimeno d

a A´rea de Produccio´n Animal, Escuela Te´cnica Superior de Ingenier´ıas Agrarias, Universidad de

Valladolid,Avd. de Madrid, 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain

b Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,

28040 Madrid, Spain

c Estaci´on Agr´ıcola Experimental, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 788, 24080 Le´on, Spain

d Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Escuela T´ecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agr´onomos,

Universidad Polit´ecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Abstract (pdf)

The effects on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of inclusion of palm oil (PO, VETALGRAS®) or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CaF, MAGNAPAC®), at two levels, in diets of growing lambs were determined. Experimental diets consisted of barley straw and one of five concentrate supplements: control (C, no fat added), low level of PO (LPO, 25 g PO/kg), low level of CaF (LCaF, 31 g CaF/kg), high level of PO (HPO, 41 g PO/kg) and high level of CaF (HCaF, 50 g CaF/kg). Concentrations of supplemental fatty acids in the diets were 25 and 41 g/kg for the two supplementation levels. Concentrates with added fat were formulated to be isonitrogenousand isoenergetic and the five supplements had the same energy:protein ratio. The experiment was completed with 30 male Ojalada lambs (6 lambs per treatment) from weaning (initial live weight 14.1±0.5 kg) until 25 kg live weight. Inclusion of fat decreased digestibility of acid detergent fibre (0.525 versus 0.438, P<0.05) and increased ether extract digestibility (0.645 versus 0.770, P<0.05). Ether extract (EE) digestibility increased (LPO and LCaF versus HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when the level of added fat increased (0.727 versus 0.814). There was a significant effect of interaction (P<0.05) between the level and type of fat on the organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility of the diets. Diets HPO presented lower digestibility values (LPO versus HPO, P<0.05) than LPO with regard to OM (0.844 versus 0.819) and NDF (0.503 versus 0.435). Nevertheless,

this effect was not observed when fat was added in the form of calcium soaps (LCaF versus HCaF, P>0.05). At the low level of fat inclusion, OM digestibility was greater when fat was in the form of PO than when it was as CaF (0.844 in LPO versus 0.823 in LCaF, P<0.05). At the high level of fat inclusion, NDF digestibility was greater when fat was included in the form of CaF rather than PO (0.435 in LPO versus 0.500 in HCaF, P<0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) and days to 25 kg were not affected by the treatments. The feed conversion ratio (FCR, g DMI/g daily gain) was lower (C versus LPO, LCaF, HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when fat was added to the diets than control animals (3.21 versus 2.86). The treatments studied produced no differences in carcass yield. Statistically significant differences in chemical composition and energy content of carcass and non-carcass components were not observed. Inclusion of up to 41 g of fat from palm oil or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids per kilogram of the concentrate of growing lambs improves EE digestibility and the feed conversion ratio without affecting carcass yield and body chemical composition. Inclusion of palm oil fatty acids as calcium soaps avoided the negative effects on fibre digestibility observed when 41 g PO/kg were added to the diet.

© 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lambs; Palm oil; Calcium soaps; Digestibility; Animal performance; Body composition

 

International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT 2008) Use of micro-filtered recovered POME sludge as fish feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

M. Ahmed2, M. Aliyu-Paiko3,A. R. Nik Norulaini2,R. Hashim3 *A. Ahmad1.

1Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

2School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

3Laboratory of Feeds and Feeding Management, Aqua-culture Research Group, School of Biological Sciences,

Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author. Phone: +6046532214 Fax: +6046573678

ABSTRACT (pdf)

The principle of membrane micro-filtration technology was employed to filter fresh palm oil mill effluent (POME). Dead-end configured filtration system was used to recover substantial amounts of the suspended solids and oil & grease with appreciable removal efficiency for COD, TSS, TS and O&G. The dried sludge (DSO) was used as a feed major ingredient together with defatted fishmeal to formulate a diet. Three different diets were tested on Nile tilapia; O. niloticus fingerlings comprising of DSO mixed with defatted fishmeal, crude palm oil (CPO) and defatted fishmeal and a third group of fingerlings fed with Fish oil (FO) mixed with defatted fishmeal as a control. The growth of all fingerlings was monitored every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks. The result showed that there is significant growth performance in fish fed with DSO indicating that it can be used as a fish feed ingredient to supply some proteins and lipids.

Key words: Feed ingredient, Growth, Micro-filtration, POME, Tilapia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of Processing of Oil Palm Frond on Palatability in Bali Cows

M. Afdal12, S Syarif1, A Kasim21

1Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia.

2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia

 

Introduction Palm oil frond (POF) is one of the by-products from palm oil plantations and is indicative of the disturbance to the environment in Indonesia and Malaysia as development of the palm oil industry in this area nowadays. Indonesia Statistical Biro (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. On the other hand, this product might be used as an alternative ruminant feed. Based on preliminary study, palm oil usually has 48 fronds and each frond has 250 to 350 leaves. Parts of POF that can be utilized as a feed are peeled frond, around 30 % of the fresh frond. PF could be fed to the animal in term of fresh chopped frond, frond meal and frond pellet. There is however no information dealing with POF especially its palatability and therefore a study was undertaken to assess the value of this by-product in diets of ruminants.  The aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical composition and the palatability of POF, and proportion of POF eaten by animal.

 

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