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Copper isotope fractionation during its interaction with soil

and aquatic microorganisms and metal oxy(hydr)oxides:

Possible structural control

O.S. Pokrovsky a,*, J. Viers a, E.E. Emnova b, E.I. Kompantseva c, R. Freydier a

a Laboratoire de Me´canismes et Transfert en Ge´ologie (LMTG), Universite´ de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD,

OMP, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France

b Institute of Genetics and Plant Physiology, Moldavian Academy of Science, Kishinev, Moldavia

c Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

Received 4 June 2007; accepted in revised form 23 January 2008; available online 31 January 2008

Pdf Abastract This work is aimed at quantifying the main environmental factors controlling isotope fractionation of Cu during its adsorption from aqueous solutions onto common organic (bacteria, algae) and inorganic (oxy(hydr)oxide) surfaces. Adsorption of Cu on aerobic rhizospheric (Pseudomonas aureofaciens CNMN PsB-03) and phototrophic aquatic (Rhodobacter sp. f-7bl, Gloeocapsa sp. f-6gl) bacteria, uptake of Cu by marine (Skeletonema costatum) and freshwater (Navicula minima, Achnanthidium minutissimum and Melosira varians) diatoms, and Cu adsorption onto goethite (FeOOH) and gibbsite (AlOOH) were studied using a batch reaction as a function of pH, copper concentration in solution and time of exposure. Stable isotopes of copper in selected filtrates were measured using Neptune multicollector ICP-MS. Irreversible incorporation of Cu in cultured diatom cells at pH 7.5–8.0 did not produce any isotopic shift between the cell and solution (D65/63Cu(solid-solution)) within ±0.2&. Accordingly, no systematic variation was observed during Cu adsorption on anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (Rhodobacter sp.), cyanobacteria (Gloeocapsa sp.) or soil aerobic exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (P. aureofaciens) in circumneutral pH (4–6.5) and various exposure times (3 min to 48 h): D65Cu(solid-solution) = 0.0 ± 0.4&. In contrast, when Cu was adsorbed at pH 1.8–3.5 on the cell surface of soil the bacterium P. aureofacienshaving abundant or poor EPS depending on medium composition, yielded a significant enrichment of the cell surface in the light isotope (D65Cu (solid-solution) = _1.2 ± 0.5&). Inorganic reactions of Cu adsorption at pH 4–6 produced the opposite isotopic offset: enrichment of the oxy(hydr)oxide surface in the heavy isotope with D65Cu(solid-solution) equals 1.0 ± 0.25& and 0.78 ± 0.2& for gibbsite and goethite, respectively. The last result corroborates the recent works of Mathur et al. [Mathur R., Ruiz J., Titley S., Liermann L., Buss H. and Brantley S. (2005) Cu isotopic fractionation in the supergene environment with and without bacteria. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 5233–5246] and Balistrieri et al. [Balistrieri L. S., Borrok D. M., Wanty R. B. and Ridley W. I. (2008) Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorhous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 311–328] who reported heavy Cu isotope enrichment onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide and on metal hydroxide precipitates on the external membranes of Fe-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. Although measured isotopic fractionation does not correlate with the relative thermodynamic stability of surface complexes, it can be related to their structures as found with available EXAFS data. Indeed, strong, bidentate, inner-sphere complexes presented by tetrahedrally coordinated Cu on metal oxide surfaces are likely to result in enrichment of the heavy isotope on the surface compared to aqueous solution. The outer-sphere, monodentate complex, which is likely to form between Cu2+ and surface phosphoryl groups of bacteria in acidic solutions, has a higher number of neighbors and longer bond distances compared to inner-sphere bidentate complexes with carboxyl groups formed on bacterial and diatom surfaces in circumneutral solutions. As a result, in acidic solution, light isotopes become more enriched on bacterial surfaces (as opposed to the surrounding aqueous medium) than they do in neutral solution. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate important isotopic fractionation of copper in both organic and inorganic systems and provide a firm basis for using Cu isotopes for tracing metal transport in earth-surface aquatic systems. It follows that both adsorption on oxides in a wide range of pH values and adsorption on bacteria in acidic solutions are capable of producing a significant (up to 2.5–3& (±0.1–0.15&)) isotopic offset. At the same time, Cu interaction with common soil and aquatic bacteria, as well as marine and freshwater diatoms, at 4 < pH < 8 yields an isotopic shift of only ±0.2–0.3&, which is not related to Cu concentration in solution, surface loading, the duration of the experiment, or the type of aquatic microorganisms.

Biosorption of Cr(VI) by immobilized biomass of two indigenous

strains of cyanobacteria isolated from metal contaminated soil

Kamra Anjana, Anubha Kaushik , Bala Kiran, Rani Nisha

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar

University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125 001, India

Received 16 November 2006; received in revised form 19 February 2007;

accepted 19 February 2007 Available online 23 February 2007

Pdf Abstract Biosorption of Cr(VI) using native strains of cyanobacteria from metal contaminated soil in the premises of textile mill has been reported in this paper. Biosorption was studied as a function of pH (1–5), contact time (5–180 min) and initial chromium ion concentration (5–20 mg/l) to find out the maximum biosorption capacity of alginate immobilized Nostoc calcicola HH-12 and Chroococcus sp. HH-11. The optimum conditions for Cr(VI) biosorption are almost same for the two strains (pH 3–4, contact time 30 min and initial chromium concentration of 20 mg/l) however, the biomass of Chroococcus sp. HH-11 was found to be more suitable for the development of an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater, as it showed higher values of qm and Kf, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters. Both the isotherm models were suitable for describing the biosorption of Cr(VI) by the cyanobacterial biosorbents.

 

Keywords: Algae; Heavy metal; Adsorption isotherm

 

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Effect of Essential Oil Active Compounds on Rumen Microbial

Fermentation and Nutrient Flow in In Vitro Systems

L. Castillejos, S. Calsamiglia,1 and A. Ferret

Grup de Recerca en Nutricio´ , Maneig i Benestar Animal, Departament de Cie`ncia Animal i dels Aliments,

Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

pdf ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several essential oil active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation. In the first experiment, 4 doses (5, 50, 500, and 5,000 mg/L) of 5 essential oil compounds were evaluated using in vitro 24-h batch culture of rumen fluid with a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were control (CON), eugenol (EUG), guaiacol, limonene, thymol (THY), and vanillin. After 24 h, the pH was determined, and samples were collected to analyze ammonia N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The highest dose of all compounds decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. Eugenol at 5 mg/L tended to reduce the proportion of acetate and the acetate to propionate ratio, at 50 and 500 mg/L tended to reduce ammonia N concentration, and at 500 mg/L reduced the proportion of propionate and branchedchain VFA concentration, without affecting total VFA concentration. All other treatments had minor effects or changes occurred only after total VFA concentration decreased. In the second experiment, 8 dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1,320 mL) were used in 3 replicated periods (6 d of adaptation and 3 d of sampling) to study the effects of THY and EUG on rumen microbial fermentation. Fermenters were fed 95 g/d of DM of a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were CON, 10 mg/L of monensin (positive control), and 5, 50, or 500 mg/L of THY and EUG, and were randomly assigned to fermenters within periods. During the last 3 d of each period, samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after the morning feeding and analyzed for peptides, amino acids, and ammonia N concentrations, and total and individual VFA concentrations. Monensin changed the VFA profile as expected, but inhibited nutrient digestion. Eugenol and THY decreased total VFA concentration and changed the VFA profile, and only 5 mg/L of THY tended to reduce the proportion of acetate, increased the proportion of butyrate, and increased the large peptidesNconcentration without decreasing total VFA concentration. Most of these essential oil compounds demonstrated their antimicrobial activity by decreasing total VFA concentration at high doses. However, EUG in batch fermentation and 5 mg/L of THY in continuous culture modified the VFA profile without decreasing total VFA concentration, and EUG in batch fermentation decreased ammonia N concentration.

Key words: essential oil, thymol, eugenol, rumen fermentation

 

 

Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde

and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation

in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet1

P. W. Cardozo,* S. Calsamiglia,*2 A. Ferret,* and C. Kamel†

*Animal Nutrition, Management, and Welfare Research Group, Departament de Cie`ncia

Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain;

†Pancosma SA, 01200-Bellegarde-sur-Valserine, Cedex, France

pdf ABSTRACT: Four Holstein heifers (360 ± 22 and 450 ± 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 × 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and AEX and CIE1 in combination; and Exp. 2, no additive, anise oil (2 g/d), capsicum oil (1 g/d), and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d). Heifers were fed a 90:10 concentrate:barley straw diet (16% CP; 25% NDF) for ad libitum intake. Each period consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 6 d for sampling. On d 16 to 18, DM and water intakes were measured. On d 19 to 21 ruminal contents were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding to determine ruminal pH and the concentrations of VFA, L-lactate, large peptides, small peptides plus AA (SPep+AA), and ammonia N. On d 20 and 21, samples of ruminal fluid were collected at 0 and 3 h after feeding to determine protozoal counts. In Exp. 1, CIE1 and AEX decreased (P< 0.05) total DMI, concentrate DMI, and water intake. The increase (P < 0.05) in SPep+AA and the decrease (P < 0.05) in ammonia N when supplementing CIE1 suggest that deamination was inhibited. Treatment AEX increased (P < 0.05) the acetate to propionate ratio, which is less efficient for beef production. Treatment CIE1 increased (P< 0.05) counts of holotrichs. Effects of AEX and CIE1 were not additive for many of the measured metabolites. In Exp. 2, treatments had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA concentration, and butyrate proportion. The capsicum oil treatment increased (P < 0.05) DMI, water intake, and SPep+AA N concentration and decreased (P < 0.05) acetate proportion, branched-chain VFA concentration, and large peptide N concentration. The cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d) treatment decreased (P < 0.05) water intake, acetate proportion, branchedchain VFA, L-lactate, and ammonia N concentrations

and increased (P < 0.05) propionate proportion and SPep+AA N concentration. The anise oil treatment decreased (P < 0.05) acetate to propionate ratio, branchedchain VFA and ammonia N concentrations, and protozoal counts. The results indicate that at the doses used a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, anise oil, and capsicum oil may be useful as modifiers of rumen fermentation in beef production systems.

Key words: plant extract, rumen fermentation

 

Effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

A.V. Chaves a,b, K. Stanford c, L.L. Gibson d, T.A. McAllister b, C. Benchaar a,

a Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre,

P.O. Box 90 STN Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z3

b Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 c Alberta Agriculture and Food, 5401-1st Ave. S. Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 d Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, 6000 C&E Trail, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada T4L 1W1

pdf Abstract: Effects of essential oil compounds (EOC) on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics were determined using 60 lambs (24.6±0.77 kg initial live weight, LW) fed either a barley- or corn grain-based diet without supplementation (control), or supplemented with 0.2 g/kg (DM basis) of carvacrol (CAR) or cinnamaldehyde (CIN). The experimental diets were arranged as a 2×3 factorial with 11-week periods and fed to lambs ad libitum. Ruminal pH tended (P=0.06) to be lower and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was higher (P<0.01) for barley- versus corn-based diets. Addition of EOC reduced (P=0.02) ruminal pH and increased (P=0.03) total VFA concentration versus the control. Acetate and propionate molar proportions and ammonia concentration did not differ among treatments. Inclusion of EOC in barley- or corn-based diets did not alter dry matter intake or average daily gain of lambs. Lambs fed the control diets tended (P=0.10) to have lighter livers than those fed diets containing EOC. Neither type of grain nor inclusion of EOC substantially affected sensory attributes of lamb sirloins.

Keywords: Carvacrol; Cinnamaldehyde; Ruminal fermentation; Growth performance; Carcass quality

 

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Daya Cerna Jagung dan Rumput sebagai Pakan Rusa (Cervus Timorensis)

R. Garsetiasih

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Bogor

ABSTRACT (pdf)

The experiment was done on two couples of deer to determine digestilibities and consumption of grass and corn. Each heads of deers of 12-14 months, each couple was managed on difference model of stable (mini ranch and traditional stable) the grass was kept available to deers during the periods of observation and corn was given every two days (250 g). Description analysis and Tillman et al. formula (1984) were implemented to know the level of consumption and digestibility of feed on difference model of stable. Quantitativelly, the deers on the mini ranch were the best; the digestilibities of its constituents were 58.4% crude fibre; 58.9% organic matter and 47.7% dry matter, digestilibities on the tradisional stable were 49.2% crude fibre; 52.2% organic matter and 50.7% dry matter. Feed consumption of the deers on the mini ranch and traditional stable were 1.570 kg and 1.440 kg.

Key words: Deer, digestibility, corn, grass.

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Antimicrobial activities of Eugenol and Cinnamaldehyde against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori pdf

A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial
studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils,
oleoresins and their constituents pdf

Aldehydic components of Cinnamon bark extract suppresses

RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation pdf

 

 

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FERMENTATION IN THE RUMEN OF THE SHEEP

III. INTERMEDIATE STAGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF WHEATEN

HAY IN VITRO BY MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE RUMEN

BY F. V. GRAY AND A. F. PILGRIM

From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

pdf (With One Text-figure)

A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids.

 

FERMENTATION IN THE RUMEN OF THE SHEEP

III. INTERMEDIATE STAGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF WHEATEN

HAY IN VITRO BY MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE RUMEN

BY F. V. GRAY AND A. F. PILGRIM

 

 

 

 

From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

(With One Text-figure)

pdf A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids. (Bahasa Indonesia)

Rumen Microbiology

Method for Measuring Gas Production Kinetics

D.R. Mertens and P.J. Weimer

Introduction (pdf)

Methodology can play a critical role in the measurement of digestion kinetics, especially when the objective is to define kinetic parameters for feeds when formulating rations or modeling animal responses. Measurement of gas production kinetics provides the opportunity to evaluate the rate of digestion of the soluble, more rapidly fermenting fractions of feeds. However, differences among procedures that have little impact on digestion of dry matter after 48 h of incubation may have dramatic effects on fermentation of soluble matter during the first 20 h. Our objective was to develop a method for measuring the kinetics of gas production that would minimize any detrimental effects associated with the in vitro system and provide estimates of digestion kinetics that can be used to both describe feeds for ration formulation systems and provide parameters for models of ruminal digestion. (Bahasa Indonesia)

 

 

 

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An overview of the methane emission from ruminant

in Jambi Province, Indonesia

M. Afdal

Faculty of Animal Husbandry Jambi University kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361 Indonesia

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan 43300 Malaysia

 

Introduction

 

Jambi Province is an area situated in the central part of Sumatra Island. Geographically is located between 00 45′ to 20 45′ Latitude South and 1010 10′ to 1040 55′ Longitude East. Jambi Province is separated by Riau Province in the north, Malacca strait in the east, West Sumatra in the west and South Sumatra in the south. The width of Jambi Province is 53.534 km2 that consists of ( more read. pdf).

A Strategy for Reducing Methane Emissions

Judith Bates, AEA Technology plc

156 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 ORA, UK.

ABSTRACT (pdf)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas whose concentration in the atmosphere has more than doubled since pre-industrial times. It is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but due to its shorter atmospheric lifetime (of 12 years) it is estimated that global emissions would only need to be reduced by about 8% from current levels to stabilize methane concentrations at today’s levels. This is a much smaller percentage reduction than those required to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of the other major greenhouse gases, CO2 and N20.

The main source of methane emissions within the EU is the agricultural sector, where emissions arise mainly from enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock, but also from livestock manure. The other major source is landfills, while coal mining and gas production and distribution are smaller, but still significant contributions. There are a range of possible measures for the reduction of emissions from each of these sectors, varying from technological options such as the collection and combustion of landfill gas, or the recovery and use of methane from animal waste, through to more general measures, often of a longer term nature, such as a reduction in the amount of organic waste going to landfill, or a reduction in livestock numbers. For some sources there are still significant uncertainties in emission factors, which make the development and assessment of abatement options difficult. In addition, there is a lack of data on the cost-effectiveness of many actions and measures. Any strategy for reducing emissions is 246 thus likely to need to combine measures to encourage the deployment of proven techniques, and to encourage research into the cost-effectiveness of options, and to improve knowledge of emissions factors and processes for some sources. This paper discusses the main options for the reduction of methane emissions and briefly summarizes the strategy paper recently prepared on this subject by the European Commission.

 

 

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PUBLICATIONS

a. Scientific papers and abstracts

2003

Givens, D. I., Allison, R and Blake, J.S. (2003) Enhancement of oleic acid and vitamin E concentrations of bovine milk using dietary supplements of whole rapeseed and vitamin E. Animal Research 52: 531-542

Givens, D. I., Rymer, C., Moss, A. R. and Allison, R. (2003). The effect of duration of feeding oilseeds to dairy cows on the persistency of response in milk fatty acid composition. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p22.

Afdal, M., Givens, D. I . , Rymer, C., Owen, E. and Mould, F. L. (2003). The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of faeces. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p. 150.

Cottrill, B. R. and Givens, D. I . (2003) Enhancing the selenium content of milk. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p. 215.

see more (pdf)

b. ADAS Science Review see more

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