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FERMENTATION IN THE RUMEN OF THE SHEEP

III. INTERMEDIATE STAGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF WHEATEN

HAY IN VITRO BY MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE RUMEN

BY F. V. GRAY AND A. F. PILGRIM

From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

pdf (With One Text-figure)

A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids.

 

FERMENTATION IN THE RUMEN OF THE SHEEP

III. INTERMEDIATE STAGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF WHEATEN

HAY IN VITRO BY MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE RUMEN

BY F. V. GRAY AND A. F. PILGRIM

 

 

 

 

From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

(With One Text-figure)

pdf A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids. (Bahasa Indonesia)

Rumen Microbiology

Method for Measuring Gas Production Kinetics

D.R. Mertens and P.J. Weimer

Introduction (pdf)

Methodology can play a critical role in the measurement of digestion kinetics, especially when the objective is to define kinetic parameters for feeds when formulating rations or modeling animal responses. Measurement of gas production kinetics provides the opportunity to evaluate the rate of digestion of the soluble, more rapidly fermenting fractions of feeds. However, differences among procedures that have little impact on digestion of dry matter after 48 h of incubation may have dramatic effects on fermentation of soluble matter during the first 20 h. Our objective was to develop a method for measuring the kinetics of gas production that would minimize any detrimental effects associated with the in vitro system and provide estimates of digestion kinetics that can be used to both describe feeds for ration formulation systems and provide parameters for models of ruminal digestion. (Bahasa Indonesia)

 

 

 

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Effect of Processing of Palm Oil Petiole on Palatability in Bali Cows (Bos sondaecus)
M Afdal12 S Syarif1 A Kasim2
1Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Animal Husbandry University of Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Science Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: bandatanang@yahoo.com

 Introduction

 Palm oil petiole (POP) is a pruning by-product from palm oil plantations. POP is the stalk of the palm oil frond (POF) without the leaflets and the outer layer.  By weight, it contributed about 30 percent of POF. POP was a possible alternative for POF in feeding Bali cows (Bos sondaecus) since Bali cows we observed to reject fresh POF.  Central Bureau of Indonesian Statistics (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia which is equivalent to 3,260,810 t of POP.  POF are successfully used as feed for Bos taurus and Bos indicus and there are a lot of studies being done, especially in Malaysia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787, 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. However, there is no information on the nutritive value of POP and its palatability in Bali cows. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritive value of POP, and palatability of POP types by Bali cows when processed in several forms. read more (word) Proceeding British Sociecty of Animal Science 2009 p 093 (pdf).

 

EFFECT OF CONCENTRATE LEVEL AND THE LENGTH OF

 FATTENING ON THE GROWTH, FEED INTAKE AND FEED

CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF PESISIR COWS 

M. Afdal1 and Khasrad2 

1 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia, bandatanang@yahoo.com

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Andalas University Kampus Limau Manis Padang Indonesia. Khasrad@unand.ac.id

 ABSTRACT pdf. A study was done to examine the effects of concentrate level and the length offattening on the daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Pesisir Cows. Twelve cows between 2 and 2.5 years old with live weights of 126 to 170 kg were used. The study used a randomized block design in factorial arrangement with two factors. The first factor was concentrate level (CL) with either 50 % concentrate and 50 % of ammoniated rice straw or 75 % concentrate and 25 % ammoniated rice straw (defined as Al and A2, respectively). The second factor was the duration of fattening, either 3 or 4 months (Bl and B2, respectively). There were significant effects of CL on DWG (PO.05), no significant (P>0.05) effect of LF on DWG and no CL x LF interaction on DWG. There were no significant (P>0.05) effects of CL on DMI but LF significantly affected (P<0.05) on DMI. There were no interaction effects of CL and LF on DMI. CL significantly (PO.05) decreased FCR while LF did not significantly affect FCR. There were no significant effects of interaction between CL and LF on FCR

Keywords: Pesisir Cow, Concentrate, Length Of Feeding, Daily Weight Gain, Consumption,

Feed Conversion

 The potency of Asystasia gangetica and Passiflora foetica L for goat feed

M. Afdal1, Roslinda1, S. Syarief1 and D.I. Givens2 

1Faculty of Animal Husbandly, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia 2Centre for Dairy Research. The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236,

Reading RG6 6AT, UK -.

Introduction pdf

Asystasiu gangetica (AG) and Passiflora foetica L (PF) are kind of wild plants that usually grow in area such as rubber, palm oil plantation, or in any other area like a long the side of padi field, a long the road. Reid (1990) mentioned that mostly there are 10,000 species of wild grass. These. might be part of those species. Physiologically these plants can be classified as roughage. Therefore, these might be potentially, used as feed ruminant feed, in Jambi. Indonesia. Few farmers have fed these plants to goat, cow and buffalo as animal feed but it was not optimal. The objective of this study was to examine the nutrient content of AG and PF and the palatability 01, these plants fed to the kacang goat (local coat) (KG).

 

 Evaluation of the Indonesian coffee pulp as a ruminant feed using the Reading Pressure Technique.

S. Fakhri1,2,3, A. Latief2, R. Murni2, S.D. Widyawati2, M. Afdal1,2,3 and F.L. Mould3

1ADAS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford upon-Avon, CV37 9RQ, UK

2Faculty of Animal Science, The University of Jambi, Campus Mandalo Darat, Jambi, Indonesia 36361

3Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, UK

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2001p.109

Introduction

 Indonesia is the world’s third largest producers of coffee with the residual coffee pulp being included in ruminant diets. However, coffee pulp has a low palatability although studies have shown that this can be increased by ensiling. In addition, coffee pulp contains anti-nutritive factors such as caffeine and tannins. Washing the residue with hot water reduces caffein concentration by about 90 % (Kiflewahid, 1982). In this study, the effects of washing and ensilage on the degradability profiles were examined by estimating gas release using the Reading Pressure Technique.

2. Variatio in vitro hydrolytic activity of rumen and faecal inocula.

M. Afdal1, F.L. Mould2, C. Rymer1, E. Owen2, and D.I. Givens1

1ADADS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford-on –Avon, CV37 9RQ, U.K.

2Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 237, Reading, RG6 6AR, U.K.

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2002 

Introduction Considerable efforts have been made regarding the use of faecal material to provide a microbial inoculum for in vitro feed evaluation systems. However total gas production, rate of gas release and the extent of degradation of feeds incubated using faecal inoculum are lower than those incubated in a rumen fluid medium. It has been suggested that this is due to lower microbial activity, a consequence of the different microflora and reduced microbial numbers (e.g. Mauricio, 1999). Microbial populations are dynamic so, as their enzyme activity profiles change rapidly, little information is obtained from examining these. However, their hydrolytic activity as reflected by their ability to degrade specific substrates can be simply measured and provides a potential method with which to assess the quality of inocula with respect to their use in in vitro systems. The data presented here are from a larger study in which the differences between the hydrolytic activity of faecal material and rumen contents as influenced by the time of sampling were assessed in vitro .

3. The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of sheep faeces. Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2003

Introduction The use of faecal inoculum in in vitro feed evaluation methods was examined by Balfe (1985). However, there is limited information concerning the chemical composition of faeces and factors affecting this. The chemical composition of faeces may reflect the microbial population and hence its fermentative activity. A knowledge of the faecal composition is essential as this affects the quality of faecal inoculum. The objective of this work was therefore to study the relationships between diet and the chemical composition of faeces using data obtained from sheep.

My paper has been quoted with this article below

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

Alternative methodologies – stretching the in vitro box 

Animal Feed Science and Technology 123–124 (2005) 501–515

  1. Introduction The two-stage methodology of Tilley and Terry (1963), which provides an in vitro estimate of in vivo digestibility, can be considered one of the great advances in ruminant feedstuff evaluation. Modifications by Goering and Van Soest (1970) led to the IVTDMD (in vitro true dry matter (DM) digestibility) assay that is still widely used. However, as the extent of rumen degradation of a feedstuff is the product of ruminal residence time and rate of degradation, these methodologies are deficient in that they provide no kinetic information on degradation. It is, therefore, possible for two feeds to have similar end-point degradation values, but different rates of degradation. This is of fundamental importance, as feeds with higher degradation rates tend to be consumed in greater quantity. In addition, as these assays are generally made after an extended incubation period (usually 48–96 h), it is possible that degradation is over-estimated and subtle differences among similar feeds lost. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Efforts To Use The Faeces Liquor As An Alternative Inoculum

In In Vitro Technique

Muhammad Afdal

Department of  Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia

Laboratory of Ruminant Nutrition, Faculty of Animal husbandry, University of Jambi, Indonesia

Februari 2008

1. Introduction

Rumen liquor has been widely used as inoculum in some in vitro techniques of feed evaluation. This liquor has been firstly used by Tilley and Terry (1963) for their two-step technique of feed evaluation. It was then also applied in the rumen simulation technique (Czerkawski and Breckenridge, 1977) and in the gas producton technique (Menke, et al, 1979 and Theodorou et a, 1994) all over the world. Until now rumen liquor is still the only inoculum used in in vitro technique.

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