Archive for October, 2008

Cyanobacteria As A Removal Agent Of Heavy Metal



Muhammad Afdal

GS 20787

The Assignment to fulfil the subject of

Beneficial Microbe in Agrobiotechnology  

School of Graduate Study

Universiti Putra Malaysia

August 2008


1. Introduction

 The use of Cyanobacteria in reducing the heavy metal waste in industrial area becomes trend nowadays as it could lessen the existing of the heavy metal in the waste. This waste becomes a major cause of environment due to the health effect related with them. Many researches have been done to reduce the existing of the heavy metal from wastewater by using Cyanobacteria (Anjana et al, 2007; El-Enany and Issa, 2000; and Cain et al, 2008). Some reports mentioned that cyanobacteria have been used as an absorbent agent in removing the heavy metal like Cadmium, Lead, Cromium (Anjana et al, 2007; El-Enany and Issa, 2000; and Cain et al, 2008).  Therefore the aim of this paper is to show some information concerning the role of cyanobacteria as an agent of removing the heavy metal.

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Blue-green Algae (pdf)

These questions and answers provide information to address health concerns about exposure to blue-green algal toxins in surface waters (lakes, rivers, streams and reservoirs).

What are blue-green algae?

Blue-green algae, technically known as cyanobacteria, are microscopic organisms that are naturally present in lakes and streams. They usually are present in low numbers. Blue-green algae can become very abundant in warm, shallow, undisturbed surface water that receives a lot of sunlight. When this occurs, they can form blooms that discolor the water or produce floating rafts or scums on the surface of the water.

 Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 8 (2000) 95–101



Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water

A.E. El-Enany *, A.A. Issa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract (pdf)


The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc ri6ularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. ri6ularis). Not only the number of cells was elevated but also, the time required to reach the exponential and the stationary phases was reduced. Also, low levels of sewage water increased chl.a content, photosynthetic O2-evolution, respiration and protein content. Similarly, heterocyst frequency as well as nitrogenase activity were increased in cyanobacteria grown at low and moderate levels (25 and 50% sewage). On the other hand, the high level of waste (75%) reduced growth and metabolic activities of the two species. N. linckia accumulated about 30-fold of Zn and ten-fold of Cd than those of growth medium (50% sewage water). Also, N. ri6ularis accumulated about ten-fold of Zn and two-fold of Cd. The distribution of Cd and Zn in cells were investigated. About 65–60% of Cd or Zn were found in pellets (sediment) as insoluble form in the two species. The soluble form (cytosolic fraction) after being fractionated on sephadex G-(75-100) revealed two peaks with molecular weights of 70–75 and 40–45 kDa. These peaks were in coincidence with Cd and Zn maxima. Nostoc ri6ulais showed more sensitivity to heavy metals than N. linckia, and accumulated less amount of metal-binding proteins. Nostoc linckia seems to be tolerant to heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and is able to accumulate


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A. Kasim1 and M. Afdal1,2

1 Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 UPM Serdang Malaysia

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361 Indonesia





The free ranging village chickens, although sought for their delicacy, were known for their inferior growth performances when compared to other imported coloured and free ranging strains and their crosses (Azahan and Houte, 1992; Azahan, 1993; Noraziah and Azahan, 1995; Rahman et al., 2000).  Petersen et al (1991) reported that the village chicken produced an average of 100 eggs per year which is higher than the egg production of the Ethiopian (Tadelle et al, 2003) and Indonesian (Rasyaf, 1998) village chicken at 75 and 66 eggs respectively.

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Below there is some paper concerning Rice Straw

Compositional analyses and rumen degradability

of selected tropical feeds (pdf)

J. Vadivelooa and J.G. Fadelb


The chemical composition (nitrogen fractions, tibre components, phenolic compsunds, neutral sugars and uranic acids) and rumen degradability of the dry matter (DMD) and neutral detergent tibre (NDFD) of six crop by-products (raw palm oil mill efiluent (POME), dried POME, palm kernel cake, palm press fibre, cocoa pods and rice straw) and the leaves of two legumes (Leucaenti lercocep;Wa and Gliricid:n sepiurn) were measured. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to compare and classify the feeds according to chemical composition and degradability. Lianin ooorlv differentiated between feeds and was ~oorlv related lo 48 h DMD: the maior anomalies w&e with rice straw and Gliricidiu (low lignin, lox bMd) and cocoa pods (high lignin;higb DMD). The xylose:arabinose ratio, an indicator ofbcmicellulose digestion, was higher in the legumes than in the by-products. The ratio of rapidly degradable (arabinose+glucose) to slowly degradable (xylose+ uronic acids) sugars was not a good indicator of cell wall digestion; the correlation with 48 h NDF degradability (NDFD) was only 0.69. Cluster analysis showed that conventional classitication of the feeds into by-products and legumes did not reflect their compositional or degradability attributes. These attributes were also poorly related to each other. Two unusual feeds were identified, cocoa pods and palm kernel cake.


1. Fixed-bed fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganism.









Microbial Fermentation of Rice Straw: Nutritive Composition

and In Vitro Digestibility of the Fermentation Products


Western Regional Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department ofAgriculture,

Berkeley, California 94710

Received for publication 18 November 1974

Rice straw was fermented with Cellulomonas sp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. Microbial cells and undigested residue, as well as chemically treated (NaOH or NH4OH) and untreated straws, were analyzed for nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility. In a typical fermentation, 75% of the rice straw substrate was digested, and 18.6% of the total substrate weight that disappeared was recovered as microbial protein. The microbial cell fraction was 37% protein and 5% crude fiber; the residue was 12% protein and 45% crude fiber. The microbial protein amino acid profile was similar to alfalfa, except for less cysteine. The microbial cells had more thiamine and less niacin than Torula yeast. In vitro digestibility of the microbial protein was 41.2 to 55%; that of cellulose was 52%. (More, pdf)



Paper Title        : Rice straw fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Authors            : L. Gao, H. Yang, X. Wang, Z, Huang, M. Ishii, Y. Igarashi and Z Cui

Journal name    : Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 2742-2748


The title is so interesting, simple and informative as it shows an idea about the utilization of the by product of rice straw (RS) by using biotechnologyy method. In this regard lacto acid bacteria (LAB) play as important agent to improve the RS quality or predigest the rice straw. (more…)

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Hi every body,

Here  are the list of bodies provide fund for us, students

Alltech Young Scientist lounch award for 2009


The Orskov Foundation


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Effects of palm oil and calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids in fattening diets on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of lambs

T. Mansoa,, T. Castro b, A.R. Mantec´on c, V. Jimeno d

a A´rea de Produccio´n Animal, Escuela Te´cnica Superior de Ingenier´ıas Agrarias, Universidad de

Valladolid,Avd. de Madrid, 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain

b Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,

28040 Madrid, Spain

c Estaci´on Agr´ıcola Experimental, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 788, 24080 Le´on, Spain

d Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Escuela T´ecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agr´onomos,

Universidad Polit´ecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Abstract (pdf)

The effects on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of inclusion of palm oil (PO, VETALGRAS®) or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CaF, MAGNAPAC®), at two levels, in diets of growing lambs were determined. Experimental diets consisted of barley straw and one of five concentrate supplements: control (C, no fat added), low level of PO (LPO, 25 g PO/kg), low level of CaF (LCaF, 31 g CaF/kg), high level of PO (HPO, 41 g PO/kg) and high level of CaF (HCaF, 50 g CaF/kg). Concentrations of supplemental fatty acids in the diets were 25 and 41 g/kg for the two supplementation levels. Concentrates with added fat were formulated to be isonitrogenousand isoenergetic and the five supplements had the same energy:protein ratio. The experiment was completed with 30 male Ojalada lambs (6 lambs per treatment) from weaning (initial live weight 14.1±0.5 kg) until 25 kg live weight. Inclusion of fat decreased digestibility of acid detergent fibre (0.525 versus 0.438, P<0.05) and increased ether extract digestibility (0.645 versus 0.770, P<0.05). Ether extract (EE) digestibility increased (LPO and LCaF versus HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when the level of added fat increased (0.727 versus 0.814). There was a significant effect of interaction (P<0.05) between the level and type of fat on the organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility of the diets. Diets HPO presented lower digestibility values (LPO versus HPO, P<0.05) than LPO with regard to OM (0.844 versus 0.819) and NDF (0.503 versus 0.435). Nevertheless,

this effect was not observed when fat was added in the form of calcium soaps (LCaF versus HCaF, P>0.05). At the low level of fat inclusion, OM digestibility was greater when fat was in the form of PO than when it was as CaF (0.844 in LPO versus 0.823 in LCaF, P<0.05). At the high level of fat inclusion, NDF digestibility was greater when fat was included in the form of CaF rather than PO (0.435 in LPO versus 0.500 in HCaF, P<0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) and days to 25 kg were not affected by the treatments. The feed conversion ratio (FCR, g DMI/g daily gain) was lower (C versus LPO, LCaF, HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when fat was added to the diets than control animals (3.21 versus 2.86). The treatments studied produced no differences in carcass yield. Statistically significant differences in chemical composition and energy content of carcass and non-carcass components were not observed. Inclusion of up to 41 g of fat from palm oil or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids per kilogram of the concentrate of growing lambs improves EE digestibility and the feed conversion ratio without affecting carcass yield and body chemical composition. Inclusion of palm oil fatty acids as calcium soaps avoided the negative effects on fibre digestibility observed when 41 g PO/kg were added to the diet.

© 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lambs; Palm oil; Calcium soaps; Digestibility; Animal performance; Body composition


International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT 2008) Use of micro-filtered recovered POME sludge as fish feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

M. Ahmed2, M. Aliyu-Paiko3,A. R. Nik Norulaini2,R. Hashim3 *A. Ahmad1.

1Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

2School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

3Laboratory of Feeds and Feeding Management, Aqua-culture Research Group, School of Biological Sciences,

Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author. Phone: +6046532214 Fax: +6046573678


The principle of membrane micro-filtration technology was employed to filter fresh palm oil mill effluent (POME). Dead-end configured filtration system was used to recover substantial amounts of the suspended solids and oil & grease with appreciable removal efficiency for COD, TSS, TS and O&G. The dried sludge (DSO) was used as a feed major ingredient together with defatted fishmeal to formulate a diet. Three different diets were tested on Nile tilapia; O. niloticus fingerlings comprising of DSO mixed with defatted fishmeal, crude palm oil (CPO) and defatted fishmeal and a third group of fingerlings fed with Fish oil (FO) mixed with defatted fishmeal as a control. The growth of all fingerlings was monitored every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks. The result showed that there is significant growth performance in fish fed with DSO indicating that it can be used as a fish feed ingredient to supply some proteins and lipids.

Key words: Feed ingredient, Growth, Micro-filtration, POME, Tilapia.







Effect of Processing of Oil Palm Frond on Palatability in Bali Cows

M. Afdal12, S Syarif1, A Kasim21

1Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia.

2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia


Introduction Palm oil frond (POF) is one of the by-products from palm oil plantations and is indicative of the disturbance to the environment in Indonesia and Malaysia as development of the palm oil industry in this area nowadays. Indonesia Statistical Biro (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. On the other hand, this product might be used as an alternative ruminant feed. Based on preliminary study, palm oil usually has 48 fronds and each frond has 250 to 350 leaves. Parts of POF that can be utilized as a feed are peeled frond, around 30 % of the fresh frond. PF could be fed to the animal in term of fresh chopped frond, frond meal and frond pellet. There is however no information dealing with POF especially its palatability and therefore a study was undertaken to assess the value of this by-product in diets of ruminants.  The aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical composition and the palatability of POF, and proportion of POF eaten by animal.




Berikut ada

Pedoman Pengolahan Limbah Kelapa Sawit



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