Effects of palm oil and calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids in fattening diets on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of lambs
T. Mansoa,∗, T. Castro b, A.R. Mantec´on c, V. Jimeno d
a A´rea de Produccio´n Animal, Escuela Te´cnica Superior de Ingenier´ıas Agrarias, Universidad de
Valladolid,Avd. de Madrid, 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
b Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,
28040 Madrid, Spain
c Estaci´on Agr´ıcola Experimental, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 788, 24080 Le´on, Spain
d Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Escuela T´ecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agr´onomos,
Universidad Polit´ecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
The effects on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of inclusion of palm oil (PO, VETALGRAS®) or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CaF, MAGNAPAC®), at two levels, in diets of growing lambs were determined. Experimental diets consisted of barley straw and one of five concentrate supplements: control (C, no fat added), low level of PO (LPO, 25 g PO/kg), low level of CaF (LCaF, 31 g CaF/kg), high level of PO (HPO, 41 g PO/kg) and high level of CaF (HCaF, 50 g CaF/kg). Concentrations of supplemental fatty acids in the diets were 25 and 41 g/kg for the two supplementation levels. Concentrates with added fat were formulated to be isonitrogenousand isoenergetic and the five supplements had the same energy:protein ratio. The experiment was completed with 30 male Ojalada lambs (6 lambs per treatment) from weaning (initial live weight 14.1±0.5 kg) until 25 kg live weight. Inclusion of fat decreased digestibility of acid detergent fibre (0.525 versus 0.438, P<0.05) and increased ether extract digestibility (0.645 versus 0.770, P<0.05). Ether extract (EE) digestibility increased (LPO and LCaF versus HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when the level of added fat increased (0.727 versus 0.814). There was a significant effect of interaction (P<0.05) between the level and type of fat on the organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility of the diets. Diets HPO presented lower digestibility values (LPO versus HPO, P<0.05) than LPO with regard to OM (0.844 versus 0.819) and NDF (0.503 versus 0.435). Nevertheless,
this effect was not observed when fat was added in the form of calcium soaps (LCaF versus HCaF, P>0.05). At the low level of fat inclusion, OM digestibility was greater when fat was in the form of PO than when it was as CaF (0.844 in LPO versus 0.823 in LCaF, P<0.05). At the high level of fat inclusion, NDF digestibility was greater when fat was included in the form of CaF rather than PO (0.435 in LPO versus 0.500 in HCaF, P<0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) and days to 25 kg were not affected by the treatments. The feed conversion ratio (FCR, g DMI/g daily gain) was lower (C versus LPO, LCaF, HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when fat was added to the diets than control animals (3.21 versus 2.86). The treatments studied produced no differences in carcass yield. Statistically significant differences in chemical composition and energy content of carcass and non-carcass components were not observed. Inclusion of up to 41 g of fat from palm oil or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids per kilogram of the concentrate of growing lambs improves EE digestibility and the feed conversion ratio without affecting carcass yield and body chemical composition. Inclusion of palm oil fatty acids as calcium soaps avoided the negative effects on fibre digestibility observed when 41 g PO/kg were added to the diet.
© 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Lambs; Palm oil; Calcium soaps; Digestibility; Animal performance; Body composition
International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT 2008) Use of micro-filtered recovered POME sludge as fish feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
M. Ahmed2, M. Aliyu-Paiko3,A. R. Nik Norulaini2,R. Hashim3 *A. Ahmad1.
1Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
2School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
3Laboratory of Feeds and Feeding Management, Aqua-culture Research Group, School of Biological Sciences,
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. Phone: +6046532214 Fax: +6046573678
The principle of membrane micro-filtration technology was employed to filter fresh palm oil mill effluent (POME). Dead-end configured filtration system was used to recover substantial amounts of the suspended solids and oil & grease with appreciable removal efficiency for COD, TSS, TS and O&G. The dried sludge (DSO) was used as a feed major ingredient together with defatted fishmeal to formulate a diet. Three different diets were tested on Nile tilapia; O. niloticus fingerlings comprising of DSO mixed with defatted fishmeal, crude palm oil (CPO) and defatted fishmeal and a third group of fingerlings fed with Fish oil (FO) mixed with defatted fishmeal as a control. The growth of all fingerlings was monitored every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks. The result showed that there is significant growth performance in fish fed with DSO indicating that it can be used as a fish feed ingredient to supply some proteins and lipids.
Key words: Feed ingredient, Growth, Micro-filtration, POME, Tilapia.
Effect of Processing of Oil Palm Frond on Palatability in Bali Cows
M. Afdal12, S Syarif1, A Kasim21
1Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia.
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Introduction Palm oil frond (POF) is one of the by-products from palm oil plantations and is indicative of the disturbance to the environment in Indonesia and Malaysia as development of the palm oil industry in this area nowadays. Indonesia Statistical Biro (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. On the other hand, this product might be used as an alternative ruminant feed. Based on preliminary study, palm oil usually has 48 fronds and each frond has 250 to 350 leaves. Parts of POF that can be utilized as a feed are peeled frond, around 30 % of the fresh frond. PF could be fed to the animal in term of fresh chopped frond, frond meal and frond pellet. There is however no information dealing with POF especially its palatability and therefore a study was undertaken to assess the value of this by-product in diets of ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical composition and the palatability of POF, and proportion of POF eaten by animal.
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