a. Scientific papers and abstracts


Givens, D. I., Allison, R and Blake, J.S. (2003) Enhancement of oleic acid and vitamin E concentrations of bovine milk using dietary supplements of whole rapeseed and vitamin E. Animal Research 52: 531-542

Givens, D. I., Rymer, C., Moss, A. R. and Allison, R. (2003). The effect of duration of feeding oilseeds to dairy cows on the persistency of response in milk fatty acid composition. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p22.

Afdal, M., Givens, D. I . , Rymer, C., Owen, E. and Mould, F. L. (2003). The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of faeces. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p. 150.

Cottrill, B. R. and Givens, D. I . (2003) Enhancing the selenium content of milk. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p. 215.

see more (pdf)

b. ADAS Science Review see more



Efforts To Use The Faeces Liquor As An Alternative Inoculum

In In Vitro Technique

Muhammad Afdal

Department Of Animal Sciencefaculty Of Agriculture

Universiti Putra Malaysia Selangor Malaysia

Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Animal Husbandry

Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat 36361 Jambi  Indonesia


1. Introduction

Rumen liquor has been widely used as inoculum in some in vitro techniques of feed evaluation. This liquor has been firstly used by Tilley and Terry (1963) for their two-step technique of feed evaluation. It was then also applied in the rumen simulation technique (Czerkawski and Breckenridge, 1977) and in the gas producton technique (Menke, et al, 1979 and Theodorou et a, 1994) all over the world. Until now rumen liquor is still the only inoculum used in in vitro technique. (Bahasa Indonesia)

My Paper (Karya Ilmiah)

Effect of Processing of Palm Oil Petiole on Palatability in Bali Cows (Bos sondaecus)
M Afdal12 S Syarif1 A Kasim2
1Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Animal Husbandry University of Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Science Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: bandatanang@yahoo.com


 Palm oil petiole (POP) is a pruning by-product from palm oil plantations. POP is the stalk of the palm oil frond (POF) without the leaflets and the outer layer.  By weight, it contributed about 30 percent of POF. POP was a possible alternative for POF in feeding Bali cows (Bos sondaecus) since Bali cows we observed to reject fresh POF.  Central Bureau of Indonesian Statistics (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia which is equivalent to 3,260,810 t of POP.  POF are successfully used as feed for Bos taurus and Bos indicus and there are a lot of studies being done, especially in Malaysia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787, 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. However, there is no information on the nutritive value of POP and its palatability in Bali cows. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritive value of POP, and palatability of POP types by Bali cows when processed in several forms. read more (word) Proceeding British Sociecty of Animal Science 2009 p 093 (pdf).





M. Afdal1 and Khasrad2 

1 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia, bandatanang@yahoo.com

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Andalas University Kampus Limau Manis Padang Indonesia. Khasrad@unand.ac.id

 ABSTRACT pdf. A study was done to examine the effects of concentrate level and the length offattening on the daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Pesisir Cows. Twelve cows between 2 and 2.5 years old with live weights of 126 to 170 kg were used. The study used a randomized block design in factorial arrangement with two factors. The first factor was concentrate level (CL) with either 50 % concentrate and 50 % of ammoniated rice straw or 75 % concentrate and 25 % ammoniated rice straw (defined as Al and A2, respectively). The second factor was the duration of fattening, either 3 or 4 months (Bl and B2, respectively). There were significant effects of CL on DWG (PO.05), no significant (P>0.05) effect of LF on DWG and no CL x LF interaction on DWG. There were no significant (P>0.05) effects of CL on DMI but LF significantly affected (P<0.05) on DMI. There were no interaction effects of CL and LF on DMI. CL significantly (PO.05) decreased FCR while LF did not significantly affect FCR. There were no significant effects of interaction between CL and LF on FCR

Keywords: Pesisir Cow, Concentrate, Length Of Feeding, Daily Weight Gain, Consumption,

Feed Conversion

 The potency of Asystasia gangetica and Passiflora foetica L for goat feed

M. Afdal1, Roslinda1, S. Syarief1 and D.I. Givens2 

1Faculty of Animal Husbandly, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia 2Centre for Dairy Research. The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236,

Reading RG6 6AT, UK -.

Introduction pdf

Asystasiu gangetica (AG) and Passiflora foetica L (PF) are kind of wild plants that usually grow in area such as rubber, palm oil plantation, or in any other area like a long the side of padi field, a long the road. Reid (1990) mentioned that mostly there are 10,000 species of wild grass. These. might be part of those species. Physiologically these plants can be classified as roughage. Therefore, these might be potentially, used as feed ruminant feed, in Jambi. Indonesia. Few farmers have fed these plants to goat, cow and buffalo as animal feed but it was not optimal. The objective of this study was to examine the nutrient content of AG and PF and the palatability 01, these plants fed to the kacang goat (local coat) (KG).


 Evaluation of the Indonesian coffee pulp as a ruminant feed using the Reading Pressure Technique.

S. Fakhri1,2,3, A. Latief2, R. Murni2, S.D. Widyawati2, M. Afdal1,2,3 and F.L. Mould3

1ADAS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford upon-Avon, CV37 9RQ, UK

2Faculty of Animal Science, The University of Jambi, Campus Mandalo Darat, Jambi, Indonesia 36361

3Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, UK

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2001p.109


 Indonesia is the world’s third largest producers of coffee with the residual coffee pulp being included in ruminant diets. However, coffee pulp has a low palatability although studies have shown that this can be increased by ensiling. In addition, coffee pulp contains anti-nutritive factors such as caffeine and tannins. Washing the residue with hot water reduces caffein concentration by about 90 % (Kiflewahid, 1982). In this study, the effects of washing and ensilage on the degradability profiles were examined by estimating gas release using the Reading Pressure Technique.

2. Variatio in vitro hydrolytic activity of rumen and faecal inocula.

M. Afdal1, F.L. Mould2, C. Rymer1, E. Owen2, and D.I. Givens1

1ADADS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford-on –Avon, CV37 9RQ, U.K.

2Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 237, Reading, RG6 6AR, U.K.

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2002 

Introduction Considerable efforts have been made regarding the use of faecal material to provide a microbial inoculum for in vitro feed evaluation systems. However total gas production, rate of gas release and the extent of degradation of feeds incubated using faecal inoculum are lower than those incubated in a rumen fluid medium. It has been suggested that this is due to lower microbial activity, a consequence of the different microflora and reduced microbial numbers (e.g. Mauricio, 1999). Microbial populations are dynamic so, as their enzyme activity profiles change rapidly, little information is obtained from examining these. However, their hydrolytic activity as reflected by their ability to degrade specific substrates can be simply measured and provides a potential method with which to assess the quality of inocula with respect to their use in in vitro systems. The data presented here are from a larger study in which the differences between the hydrolytic activity of faecal material and rumen contents as influenced by the time of sampling were assessed in vitro .

3. The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of sheep faeces. Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2003

Introduction The use of faecal inoculum in in vitro feed evaluation methods was examined by Balfe (1985). However, there is limited information concerning the chemical composition of faeces and factors affecting this. The chemical composition of faeces may reflect the microbial population and hence its fermentative activity. A knowledge of the faecal composition is essential as this affects the quality of faecal inoculum. The objective of this work was therefore to study the relationships between diet and the chemical composition of faeces using data obtained from sheep.

My paper has been quoted with this article below
















Alternative methodologies – stretching the in vitro box 

Animal Feed Science and Technology 123–124 (2005) 501–515

  1. Introduction The two-stage methodology of Tilley and Terry (1963), which provides an in vitro estimate of in vivo digestibility, can be considered one of the great advances in ruminant feedstuff evaluation. Modifications by Goering and Van Soest (1970) led to the IVTDMD (in vitro true dry matter (DM) digestibility) assay that is still widely used. However, as the extent of rumen degradation of a feedstuff is the product of ruminal residence time and rate of degradation, these methodologies are deficient in that they provide no kinetic information on degradation. It is, therefore, possible for two feeds to have similar end-point degradation values, but different rates of degradation. This is of fundamental importance, as feeds with higher degradation rates tend to be consumed in greater quantity. In addition, as these assays are generally made after an extended incubation period (usually 48–96 h), it is possible that degradation is over-estimated and subtle differences among similar feeds lost. 














The Isolation And Identification Of the Mixed Microbe From Airlangga And Empty Fruit Bunch

  Continue Reading »


Cyanobacteria As A Removal Agent Of Heavy Metal



Muhammad Afdal

GS 20787

The Assignment to fulfil the subject of

Beneficial Microbe in Agrobiotechnology  

School of Graduate Study

Universiti Putra Malaysia

August 2008


1. Introduction

 The use of Cyanobacteria in reducing the heavy metal waste in industrial area becomes trend nowadays as it could lessen the existing of the heavy metal in the waste. This waste becomes a major cause of environment due to the health effect related with them. Many researches have been done to reduce the existing of the heavy metal from wastewater by using Cyanobacteria (Anjana et al, 2007; El-Enany and Issa, 2000; and Cain et al, 2008). Some reports mentioned that cyanobacteria have been used as an absorbent agent in removing the heavy metal like Cadmium, Lead, Cromium (Anjana et al, 2007; El-Enany and Issa, 2000; and Cain et al, 2008).  Therefore the aim of this paper is to show some information concerning the role of cyanobacteria as an agent of removing the heavy metal.

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Blue-green Algae (pdf)

These questions and answers provide information to address health concerns about exposure to blue-green algal toxins in surface waters (lakes, rivers, streams and reservoirs).

What are blue-green algae?

Blue-green algae, technically known as cyanobacteria, are microscopic organisms that are naturally present in lakes and streams. They usually are present in low numbers. Blue-green algae can become very abundant in warm, shallow, undisturbed surface water that receives a lot of sunlight. When this occurs, they can form blooms that discolor the water or produce floating rafts or scums on the surface of the water.

 Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 8 (2000) 95–101



Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water

A.E. El-Enany *, A.A. Issa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract (pdf)


The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc ri6ularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. ri6ularis). Not only the number of cells was elevated but also, the time required to reach the exponential and the stationary phases was reduced. Also, low levels of sewage water increased chl.a content, photosynthetic O2-evolution, respiration and protein content. Similarly, heterocyst frequency as well as nitrogenase activity were increased in cyanobacteria grown at low and moderate levels (25 and 50% sewage). On the other hand, the high level of waste (75%) reduced growth and metabolic activities of the two species. N. linckia accumulated about 30-fold of Zn and ten-fold of Cd than those of growth medium (50% sewage water). Also, N. ri6ularis accumulated about ten-fold of Zn and two-fold of Cd. The distribution of Cd and Zn in cells were investigated. About 65–60% of Cd or Zn were found in pellets (sediment) as insoluble form in the two species. The soluble form (cytosolic fraction) after being fractionated on sephadex G-(75-100) revealed two peaks with molecular weights of 70–75 and 40–45 kDa. These peaks were in coincidence with Cd and Zn maxima. Nostoc ri6ulais showed more sensitivity to heavy metals than N. linckia, and accumulated less amount of metal-binding proteins. Nostoc linckia seems to be tolerant to heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and is able to accumulate



A. Kasim1 and M. Afdal1,2

1 Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 UPM Serdang Malaysia

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361 Indonesia





The free ranging village chickens, although sought for their delicacy, were known for their inferior growth performances when compared to other imported coloured and free ranging strains and their crosses (Azahan and Houte, 1992; Azahan, 1993; Noraziah and Azahan, 1995; Rahman et al., 2000).  Petersen et al (1991) reported that the village chicken produced an average of 100 eggs per year which is higher than the egg production of the Ethiopian (Tadelle et al, 2003) and Indonesian (Rasyaf, 1998) village chicken at 75 and 66 eggs respectively.

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Below there is some paper concerning Rice Straw

Compositional analyses and rumen degradability

of selected tropical feeds (pdf)

J. Vadivelooa and J.G. Fadelb


The chemical composition (nitrogen fractions, tibre components, phenolic compsunds, neutral sugars and uranic acids) and rumen degradability of the dry matter (DMD) and neutral detergent tibre (NDFD) of six crop by-products (raw palm oil mill efiluent (POME), dried POME, palm kernel cake, palm press fibre, cocoa pods and rice straw) and the leaves of two legumes (Leucaenti lercocep;Wa and Gliricid:n sepiurn) were measured. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to compare and classify the feeds according to chemical composition and degradability. Lianin ooorlv differentiated between feeds and was ~oorlv related lo 48 h DMD: the maior anomalies w&e with rice straw and Gliricidiu (low lignin, lox bMd) and cocoa pods (high lignin;higb DMD). The xylose:arabinose ratio, an indicator ofbcmicellulose digestion, was higher in the legumes than in the by-products. The ratio of rapidly degradable (arabinose+glucose) to slowly degradable (xylose+ uronic acids) sugars was not a good indicator of cell wall digestion; the correlation with 48 h NDF degradability (NDFD) was only 0.69. Cluster analysis showed that conventional classitication of the feeds into by-products and legumes did not reflect their compositional or degradability attributes. These attributes were also poorly related to each other. Two unusual feeds were identified, cocoa pods and palm kernel cake.


1. Fixed-bed fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganism.









Microbial Fermentation of Rice Straw: Nutritive Composition

and In Vitro Digestibility of the Fermentation Products


Western Regional Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department ofAgriculture,

Berkeley, California 94710

Received for publication 18 November 1974

Rice straw was fermented with Cellulomonas sp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. Microbial cells and undigested residue, as well as chemically treated (NaOH or NH4OH) and untreated straws, were analyzed for nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility. In a typical fermentation, 75% of the rice straw substrate was digested, and 18.6% of the total substrate weight that disappeared was recovered as microbial protein. The microbial cell fraction was 37% protein and 5% crude fiber; the residue was 12% protein and 45% crude fiber. The microbial protein amino acid profile was similar to alfalfa, except for less cysteine. The microbial cells had more thiamine and less niacin than Torula yeast. In vitro digestibility of the microbial protein was 41.2 to 55%; that of cellulose was 52%. (More, pdf)



Paper Title        : Rice straw fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Authors            : L. Gao, H. Yang, X. Wang, Z, Huang, M. Ishii, Y. Igarashi and Z Cui

Journal name    : Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 2742-2748


The title is so interesting, simple and informative as it shows an idea about the utilization of the by product of rice straw (RS) by using biotechnologyy method. In this regard lacto acid bacteria (LAB) play as important agent to improve the RS quality or predigest the rice straw. Continue Reading »