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Effect of Essential Oil Active Compounds on Rumen Microbial

Fermentation and Nutrient Flow in In Vitro Systems

L. Castillejos, S. Calsamiglia,1 and A. Ferret

Grup de Recerca en Nutricio´ , Maneig i Benestar Animal, Departament de Cie`ncia Animal i dels Aliments,

Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

pdf ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several essential oil active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation. In the first experiment, 4 doses (5, 50, 500, and 5,000 mg/L) of 5 essential oil compounds were evaluated using in vitro 24-h batch culture of rumen fluid with a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were control (CON), eugenol (EUG), guaiacol, limonene, thymol (THY), and vanillin. After 24 h, the pH was determined, and samples were collected to analyze ammonia N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The highest dose of all compounds decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. Eugenol at 5 mg/L tended to reduce the proportion of acetate and the acetate to propionate ratio, at 50 and 500 mg/L tended to reduce ammonia N concentration, and at 500 mg/L reduced the proportion of propionate and branchedchain VFA concentration, without affecting total VFA concentration. All other treatments had minor effects or changes occurred only after total VFA concentration decreased. In the second experiment, 8 dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1,320 mL) were used in 3 replicated periods (6 d of adaptation and 3 d of sampling) to study the effects of THY and EUG on rumen microbial fermentation. Fermenters were fed 95 g/d of DM of a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral detergent fiber). Treatments were CON, 10 mg/L of monensin (positive control), and 5, 50, or 500 mg/L of THY and EUG, and were randomly assigned to fermenters within periods. During the last 3 d of each period, samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after the morning feeding and analyzed for peptides, amino acids, and ammonia N concentrations, and total and individual VFA concentrations. Monensin changed the VFA profile as expected, but inhibited nutrient digestion. Eugenol and THY decreased total VFA concentration and changed the VFA profile, and only 5 mg/L of THY tended to reduce the proportion of acetate, increased the proportion of butyrate, and increased the large peptidesNconcentration without decreasing total VFA concentration. Most of these essential oil compounds demonstrated their antimicrobial activity by decreasing total VFA concentration at high doses. However, EUG in batch fermentation and 5 mg/L of THY in continuous culture modified the VFA profile without decreasing total VFA concentration, and EUG in batch fermentation decreased ammonia N concentration.

Key words: essential oil, thymol, eugenol, rumen fermentation

 

 

Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde

and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation

in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet1

P. W. Cardozo,* S. Calsamiglia,*2 A. Ferret,* and C. Kamel†

*Animal Nutrition, Management, and Welfare Research Group, Departament de Cie`ncia

Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Auto`noma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain;

†Pancosma SA, 01200-Bellegarde-sur-Valserine, Cedex, France

pdf ABSTRACT: Four Holstein heifers (360 ± 22 and 450 ± 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 × 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and AEX and CIE1 in combination; and Exp. 2, no additive, anise oil (2 g/d), capsicum oil (1 g/d), and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d). Heifers were fed a 90:10 concentrate:barley straw diet (16% CP; 25% NDF) for ad libitum intake. Each period consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 6 d for sampling. On d 16 to 18, DM and water intakes were measured. On d 19 to 21 ruminal contents were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding to determine ruminal pH and the concentrations of VFA, L-lactate, large peptides, small peptides plus AA (SPep+AA), and ammonia N. On d 20 and 21, samples of ruminal fluid were collected at 0 and 3 h after feeding to determine protozoal counts. In Exp. 1, CIE1 and AEX decreased (P< 0.05) total DMI, concentrate DMI, and water intake. The increase (P < 0.05) in SPep+AA and the decrease (P < 0.05) in ammonia N when supplementing CIE1 suggest that deamination was inhibited. Treatment AEX increased (P < 0.05) the acetate to propionate ratio, which is less efficient for beef production. Treatment CIE1 increased (P< 0.05) counts of holotrichs. Effects of AEX and CIE1 were not additive for many of the measured metabolites. In Exp. 2, treatments had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA concentration, and butyrate proportion. The capsicum oil treatment increased (P < 0.05) DMI, water intake, and SPep+AA N concentration and decreased (P < 0.05) acetate proportion, branched-chain VFA concentration, and large peptide N concentration. The cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d) treatment decreased (P < 0.05) water intake, acetate proportion, branchedchain VFA, L-lactate, and ammonia N concentrations

and increased (P < 0.05) propionate proportion and SPep+AA N concentration. The anise oil treatment decreased (P < 0.05) acetate to propionate ratio, branchedchain VFA and ammonia N concentrations, and protozoal counts. The results indicate that at the doses used a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, anise oil, and capsicum oil may be useful as modifiers of rumen fermentation in beef production systems.

Key words: plant extract, rumen fermentation

 

Effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

A.V. Chaves a,b, K. Stanford c, L.L. Gibson d, T.A. McAllister b, C. Benchaar a,

a Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre,

P.O. Box 90 STN Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z3

b Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 c Alberta Agriculture and Food, 5401-1st Ave. S. Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 d Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, 6000 C&E Trail, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada T4L 1W1

pdf Abstract: Effects of essential oil compounds (EOC) on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics were determined using 60 lambs (24.6±0.77 kg initial live weight, LW) fed either a barley- or corn grain-based diet without supplementation (control), or supplemented with 0.2 g/kg (DM basis) of carvacrol (CAR) or cinnamaldehyde (CIN). The experimental diets were arranged as a 2×3 factorial with 11-week periods and fed to lambs ad libitum. Ruminal pH tended (P=0.06) to be lower and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was higher (P<0.01) for barley- versus corn-based diets. Addition of EOC reduced (P=0.02) ruminal pH and increased (P=0.03) total VFA concentration versus the control. Acetate and propionate molar proportions and ammonia concentration did not differ among treatments. Inclusion of EOC in barley- or corn-based diets did not alter dry matter intake or average daily gain of lambs. Lambs fed the control diets tended (P=0.10) to have lighter livers than those fed diets containing EOC. Neither type of grain nor inclusion of EOC substantially affected sensory attributes of lamb sirloins.

Keywords: Carvacrol; Cinnamaldehyde; Ruminal fermentation; Growth performance; Carcass quality

 

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Daya Cerna Jagung dan Rumput sebagai Pakan Rusa (Cervus Timorensis)

R. Garsetiasih

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Bogor

ABSTRACT (pdf)

The experiment was done on two couples of deer to determine digestilibities and consumption of grass and corn. Each heads of deers of 12-14 months, each couple was managed on difference model of stable (mini ranch and traditional stable) the grass was kept available to deers during the periods of observation and corn was given every two days (250 g). Description analysis and Tillman et al. formula (1984) were implemented to know the level of consumption and digestibility of feed on difference model of stable. Quantitativelly, the deers on the mini ranch were the best; the digestilibities of its constituents were 58.4% crude fibre; 58.9% organic matter and 47.7% dry matter, digestilibities on the tradisional stable were 49.2% crude fibre; 52.2% organic matter and 50.7% dry matter. Feed consumption of the deers on the mini ranch and traditional stable were 1.570 kg and 1.440 kg.

Key words: Deer, digestibility, corn, grass.

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Antimicrobial activities of Eugenol and Cinnamaldehyde against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori pdf

A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial
studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils,
oleoresins and their constituents pdf

Aldehydic components of Cinnamon bark extract suppresses

RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation pdf

 

 

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FERMENTATION IN THE RUMEN OF THE SHEEP

III. INTERMEDIATE STAGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF WHEATEN

HAY IN VITRO BY MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE RUMEN

BY F. V. GRAY AND A. F. PILGRIM

From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

pdf (With One Text-figure)

A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids.

 

FERMENTATION IN THE RUMEN OF THE SHEEP

III. INTERMEDIATE STAGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF WHEATEN

HAY IN VITRO BY MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE RUMEN

BY F. V. GRAY AND A. F. PILGRIM

 

 

 

 

From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Commonwealth

Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, University of Adelaide,

South Australia

(Received 3 May 1951)

(With One Text-figure)

pdf A previous communication in this series of papers (Gray, Pilgrim & Weller, 1951) gave an account of the fermentation of wheaten hay and lucerne hay by organisms from the rumen of the sheep, in which the overall production of each of the main volatile fatty acids was determined. In view of the complex nature of both the substrate and the mixed population of organisms involved, it was decided to investigate the intermediate stages of the fermentation to determine whether any

important changes take place in the composition or in the rate of production of the mixture of acids. (Bahasa Indonesia)

Rumen Microbiology

Method for Measuring Gas Production Kinetics

D.R. Mertens and P.J. Weimer

Introduction (pdf)

Methodology can play a critical role in the measurement of digestion kinetics, especially when the objective is to define kinetic parameters for feeds when formulating rations or modeling animal responses. Measurement of gas production kinetics provides the opportunity to evaluate the rate of digestion of the soluble, more rapidly fermenting fractions of feeds. However, differences among procedures that have little impact on digestion of dry matter after 48 h of incubation may have dramatic effects on fermentation of soluble matter during the first 20 h. Our objective was to develop a method for measuring the kinetics of gas production that would minimize any detrimental effects associated with the in vitro system and provide estimates of digestion kinetics that can be used to both describe feeds for ration formulation systems and provide parameters for models of ruminal digestion. (Bahasa Indonesia)

 

 

 

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An overview of the methane emission from ruminant

in Jambi Province, Indonesia

M. Afdal

Faculty of Animal Husbandry Jambi University kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361 Indonesia

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan 43300 Malaysia

 

Introduction

 

Jambi Province is an area situated in the central part of Sumatra Island. Geographically is located between 00 45′ to 20 45′ Latitude South and 1010 10′ to 1040 55′ Longitude East. Jambi Province is separated by Riau Province in the north, Malacca strait in the east, West Sumatra in the west and South Sumatra in the south. The width of Jambi Province is 53.534 km2 that consists of ( more read. pdf).

A Strategy for Reducing Methane Emissions

Judith Bates, AEA Technology plc

156 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 ORA, UK.

ABSTRACT (pdf)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas whose concentration in the atmosphere has more than doubled since pre-industrial times. It is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but due to its shorter atmospheric lifetime (of 12 years) it is estimated that global emissions would only need to be reduced by about 8% from current levels to stabilize methane concentrations at today’s levels. This is a much smaller percentage reduction than those required to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of the other major greenhouse gases, CO2 and N20.

The main source of methane emissions within the EU is the agricultural sector, where emissions arise mainly from enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock, but also from livestock manure. The other major source is landfills, while coal mining and gas production and distribution are smaller, but still significant contributions. There are a range of possible measures for the reduction of emissions from each of these sectors, varying from technological options such as the collection and combustion of landfill gas, or the recovery and use of methane from animal waste, through to more general measures, often of a longer term nature, such as a reduction in the amount of organic waste going to landfill, or a reduction in livestock numbers. For some sources there are still significant uncertainties in emission factors, which make the development and assessment of abatement options difficult. In addition, there is a lack of data on the cost-effectiveness of many actions and measures. Any strategy for reducing emissions is 246 thus likely to need to combine measures to encourage the deployment of proven techniques, and to encourage research into the cost-effectiveness of options, and to improve knowledge of emissions factors and processes for some sources. This paper discusses the main options for the reduction of methane emissions and briefly summarizes the strategy paper recently prepared on this subject by the European Commission.

 

 

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BAB III

Rajo Tigo Selo

 

Rabu, 11/06/2008 10:16 WIB

 

 

Rajo Tigo Selo merupakan sebuah institusi tertinggi dalam kerajaan Pagaruyung yang dalam tambo adat disebut Limbago Rajo. Tiga orang raja masing-masing terdiri dari Raja Alam, Raja Adat dan Raja Ibadat yang berasal dari satu keturunan. Ketiga raja dalam berbagai tulisan tentang kerajaan Melayu Minangkabau ditafsirkan sebagai satu orang raja. Itulah sebabnya sejarah mencatat bahwa raja Melayu sewaktu didatangi Mahisa Anabrang dari Singosari yang memimpin ekspesidi Pamalayu bernama Tribuana Raja Mauli Warmadewa. Arti kata tersebut adalah tiga raja penguasa bumi yang berasal dari keluarga Mauli Warmadewa. baca selanjutnya

BAB IV
Yang Di Pertuan Sultan Alam Muningsyah

Rabu, 11/06/2008 10:17 WIB

Tuanku Raja Muning Alamsyah atau juga yang disebut Yang Dipertuan Sultan Alam Muningsyah adalah raja alam Pagaruyung yang secara luar biasa selamat dari tragedi pembunuhan di Koto Tangah, Tanah Datar pada tahun 1809 dalam masa Perang Paderi berkecamuk di Minangkabau. Tahun terjadinya tragedi ini dipertikaikan.

Christine Dobin mencatatkan dalam Kebangkitan Islam Dalam Ekonomi Petani Yang Sedang Berubah, (Inis, Jakarta 1992) tragedi tersebut terjadi pada tahun 1815, sebagaimana yang juga ditulis Rusli Amran dalam Sumatera Barat Hingga Plakat Panjang, (Sinar Harapan, Jakarta 1981). (Baca selanjutnya)

Disarikan oleh : Puti Reno Raudha Thaib)

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PUBLICATIONS

a. Scientific papers and abstracts

2003

Givens, D. I., Allison, R and Blake, J.S. (2003) Enhancement of oleic acid and vitamin E concentrations of bovine milk using dietary supplements of whole rapeseed and vitamin E. Animal Research 52: 531-542

Givens, D. I., Rymer, C., Moss, A. R. and Allison, R. (2003). The effect of duration of feeding oilseeds to dairy cows on the persistency of response in milk fatty acid composition. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p22.

Afdal, M., Givens, D. I . , Rymer, C., Owen, E. and Mould, F. L. (2003). The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of faeces. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p. 150.

Cottrill, B. R. and Givens, D. I . (2003) Enhancing the selenium content of milk. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2003, p. 215.

see more (pdf)

b. ADAS Science Review see more

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