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Efforts To Use The Faeces Liquor As An Alternative Inoculum

In In Vitro Technique

Muhammad Afdal

Department Of Animal Sciencefaculty Of Agriculture

Universiti Putra Malaysia Selangor Malaysia

Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Animal Husbandry

Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat 36361 Jambi  Indonesia

 

1. Introduction

Rumen liquor has been widely used as inoculum in some in vitro techniques of feed evaluation. This liquor has been firstly used by Tilley and Terry (1963) for their two-step technique of feed evaluation. It was then also applied in the rumen simulation technique (Czerkawski and Breckenridge, 1977) and in the gas producton technique (Menke, et al, 1979 and Theodorou et a, 1994) all over the world. Until now rumen liquor is still the only inoculum used in in vitro technique. (Bahasa Indonesia)

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Effect of Processing of Palm Oil Petiole on Palatability in Bali Cows (Bos sondaecus)
M Afdal12 S Syarif1 A Kasim2
1Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Animal Husbandry University of Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Science Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: bandatanang@yahoo.com

 Introduction

 Palm oil petiole (POP) is a pruning by-product from palm oil plantations. POP is the stalk of the palm oil frond (POF) without the leaflets and the outer layer.  By weight, it contributed about 30 percent of POF. POP was a possible alternative for POF in feeding Bali cows (Bos sondaecus) since Bali cows we observed to reject fresh POF.  Central Bureau of Indonesian Statistics (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia which is equivalent to 3,260,810 t of POP.  POF are successfully used as feed for Bos taurus and Bos indicus and there are a lot of studies being done, especially in Malaysia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787, 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. However, there is no information on the nutritive value of POP and its palatability in Bali cows. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritive value of POP, and palatability of POP types by Bali cows when processed in several forms. read more (word) Proceeding British Sociecty of Animal Science 2009 p 093 (pdf).

 

EFFECT OF CONCENTRATE LEVEL AND THE LENGTH OF

 FATTENING ON THE GROWTH, FEED INTAKE AND FEED

CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF PESISIR COWS 

M. Afdal1 and Khasrad2 

1 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia, bandatanang@yahoo.com

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Andalas University Kampus Limau Manis Padang Indonesia. Khasrad@unand.ac.id

 ABSTRACT pdf. A study was done to examine the effects of concentrate level and the length offattening on the daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Pesisir Cows. Twelve cows between 2 and 2.5 years old with live weights of 126 to 170 kg were used. The study used a randomized block design in factorial arrangement with two factors. The first factor was concentrate level (CL) with either 50 % concentrate and 50 % of ammoniated rice straw or 75 % concentrate and 25 % ammoniated rice straw (defined as Al and A2, respectively). The second factor was the duration of fattening, either 3 or 4 months (Bl and B2, respectively). There were significant effects of CL on DWG (PO.05), no significant (P>0.05) effect of LF on DWG and no CL x LF interaction on DWG. There were no significant (P>0.05) effects of CL on DMI but LF significantly affected (P<0.05) on DMI. There were no interaction effects of CL and LF on DMI. CL significantly (PO.05) decreased FCR while LF did not significantly affect FCR. There were no significant effects of interaction between CL and LF on FCR

Keywords: Pesisir Cow, Concentrate, Length Of Feeding, Daily Weight Gain, Consumption,

Feed Conversion

 The potency of Asystasia gangetica and Passiflora foetica L for goat feed

M. Afdal1, Roslinda1, S. Syarief1 and D.I. Givens2 

1Faculty of Animal Husbandly, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

Indonesia 2Centre for Dairy Research. The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236,

Reading RG6 6AT, UK -.

Introduction pdf

Asystasiu gangetica (AG) and Passiflora foetica L (PF) are kind of wild plants that usually grow in area such as rubber, palm oil plantation, or in any other area like a long the side of padi field, a long the road. Reid (1990) mentioned that mostly there are 10,000 species of wild grass. These. might be part of those species. Physiologically these plants can be classified as roughage. Therefore, these might be potentially, used as feed ruminant feed, in Jambi. Indonesia. Few farmers have fed these plants to goat, cow and buffalo as animal feed but it was not optimal. The objective of this study was to examine the nutrient content of AG and PF and the palatability 01, these plants fed to the kacang goat (local coat) (KG).

 

 Evaluation of the Indonesian coffee pulp as a ruminant feed using the Reading Pressure Technique.

S. Fakhri1,2,3, A. Latief2, R. Murni2, S.D. Widyawati2, M. Afdal1,2,3 and F.L. Mould3

1ADAS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford upon-Avon, CV37 9RQ, UK

2Faculty of Animal Science, The University of Jambi, Campus Mandalo Darat, Jambi, Indonesia 36361

3Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, UK

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2001p.109

Introduction

 Indonesia is the world’s third largest producers of coffee with the residual coffee pulp being included in ruminant diets. However, coffee pulp has a low palatability although studies have shown that this can be increased by ensiling. In addition, coffee pulp contains anti-nutritive factors such as caffeine and tannins. Washing the residue with hot water reduces caffein concentration by about 90 % (Kiflewahid, 1982). In this study, the effects of washing and ensilage on the degradability profiles were examined by estimating gas release using the Reading Pressure Technique.

2. Variatio in vitro hydrolytic activity of rumen and faecal inocula.

M. Afdal1, F.L. Mould2, C. Rymer1, E. Owen2, and D.I. Givens1

1ADADS Nutritional Sciences Research Unit, Alcester Road, Stratford-on –Avon, CV37 9RQ, U.K.

2Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 237, Reading, RG6 6AR, U.K.

Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2002 

Introduction Considerable efforts have been made regarding the use of faecal material to provide a microbial inoculum for in vitro feed evaluation systems. However total gas production, rate of gas release and the extent of degradation of feeds incubated using faecal inoculum are lower than those incubated in a rumen fluid medium. It has been suggested that this is due to lower microbial activity, a consequence of the different microflora and reduced microbial numbers (e.g. Mauricio, 1999). Microbial populations are dynamic so, as their enzyme activity profiles change rapidly, little information is obtained from examining these. However, their hydrolytic activity as reflected by their ability to degrade specific substrates can be simply measured and provides a potential method with which to assess the quality of inocula with respect to their use in in vitro systems. The data presented here are from a larger study in which the differences between the hydrolytic activity of faecal material and rumen contents as influenced by the time of sampling were assessed in vitro .

3. The relationship between diet and the chemical composition of sheep faeces. Proceeding British Society of Animal Science 2003

Introduction The use of faecal inoculum in in vitro feed evaluation methods was examined by Balfe (1985). However, there is limited information concerning the chemical composition of faeces and factors affecting this. The chemical composition of faeces may reflect the microbial population and hence its fermentative activity. A knowledge of the faecal composition is essential as this affects the quality of faecal inoculum. The objective of this work was therefore to study the relationships between diet and the chemical composition of faeces using data obtained from sheep.

My paper has been quoted with this article below

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

Alternative methodologies – stretching the in vitro box 

Animal Feed Science and Technology 123–124 (2005) 501–515

  1. Introduction The two-stage methodology of Tilley and Terry (1963), which provides an in vitro estimate of in vivo digestibility, can be considered one of the great advances in ruminant feedstuff evaluation. Modifications by Goering and Van Soest (1970) led to the IVTDMD (in vitro true dry matter (DM) digestibility) assay that is still widely used. However, as the extent of rumen degradation of a feedstuff is the product of ruminal residence time and rate of degradation, these methodologies are deficient in that they provide no kinetic information on degradation. It is, therefore, possible for two feeds to have similar end-point degradation values, but different rates of degradation. This is of fundamental importance, as feeds with higher degradation rates tend to be consumed in greater quantity. In addition, as these assays are generally made after an extended incubation period (usually 48–96 h), it is possible that degradation is over-estimated and subtle differences among similar feeds lost. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Cyanobacteria As A Removal Agent Of Heavy Metal

By

 

Muhammad Afdal

GS 20787

The Assignment to fulfil the subject of

Beneficial Microbe in Agrobiotechnology  

School of Graduate Study

Universiti Putra Malaysia

August 2008

 

1. Introduction

 The use of Cyanobacteria in reducing the heavy metal waste in industrial area becomes trend nowadays as it could lessen the existing of the heavy metal in the waste. This waste becomes a major cause of environment due to the health effect related with them. Many researches have been done to reduce the existing of the heavy metal from wastewater by using Cyanobacteria (Anjana et al, 2007; El-Enany and Issa, 2000; and Cain et al, 2008). Some reports mentioned that cyanobacteria have been used as an absorbent agent in removing the heavy metal like Cadmium, Lead, Cromium (Anjana et al, 2007; El-Enany and Issa, 2000; and Cain et al, 2008).  Therefore the aim of this paper is to show some information concerning the role of cyanobacteria as an agent of removing the heavy metal.

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Blue-green Algae (pdf)

These questions and answers provide information to address health concerns about exposure to blue-green algal toxins in surface waters (lakes, rivers, streams and reservoirs).

What are blue-green algae?

Blue-green algae, technically known as cyanobacteria, are microscopic organisms that are naturally present in lakes and streams. They usually are present in low numbers. Blue-green algae can become very abundant in warm, shallow, undisturbed surface water that receives a lot of sunlight. When this occurs, they can form blooms that discolor the water or produce floating rafts or scums on the surface of the water.

 Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 8 (2000) 95–101

 

 

Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water

A.E. El-Enany *, A.A. Issa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract (pdf)

 

The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc ri6ularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. ri6ularis). Not only the number of cells was elevated but also, the time required to reach the exponential and the stationary phases was reduced. Also, low levels of sewage water increased chl.a content, photosynthetic O2-evolution, respiration and protein content. Similarly, heterocyst frequency as well as nitrogenase activity were increased in cyanobacteria grown at low and moderate levels (25 and 50% sewage). On the other hand, the high level of waste (75%) reduced growth and metabolic activities of the two species. N. linckia accumulated about 30-fold of Zn and ten-fold of Cd than those of growth medium (50% sewage water). Also, N. ri6ularis accumulated about ten-fold of Zn and two-fold of Cd. The distribution of Cd and Zn in cells were investigated. About 65–60% of Cd or Zn were found in pellets (sediment) as insoluble form in the two species. The soluble form (cytosolic fraction) after being fractionated on sephadex G-(75-100) revealed two peaks with molecular weights of 70–75 and 40–45 kDa. These peaks were in coincidence with Cd and Zn maxima. Nostoc ri6ulais showed more sensitivity to heavy metals than N. linckia, and accumulated less amount of metal-binding proteins. Nostoc linckia seems to be tolerant to heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and is able to accumulate

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IMPROVEMENT ON THE MALAYSIAN VILLAGE CHICKEN

BASED ON SELECTIVE BREEDING PROGRAM

A. Kasim1 and M. Afdal1,2

1 Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 UPM Serdang Malaysia

2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361 Indonesia

 

 

 

Introduction

The free ranging village chickens, although sought for their delicacy, were known for their inferior growth performances when compared to other imported coloured and free ranging strains and their crosses (Azahan and Houte, 1992; Azahan, 1993; Noraziah and Azahan, 1995; Rahman et al., 2000).  Petersen et al (1991) reported that the village chicken produced an average of 100 eggs per year which is higher than the egg production of the Ethiopian (Tadelle et al, 2003) and Indonesian (Rasyaf, 1998) village chicken at 75 and 66 eggs respectively.

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Below there is some paper concerning Rice Straw

Compositional analyses and rumen degradability

of selected tropical feeds (pdf)

J. Vadivelooa and J.G. Fadelb

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition (nitrogen fractions, tibre components, phenolic compsunds, neutral sugars and uranic acids) and rumen degradability of the dry matter (DMD) and neutral detergent tibre (NDFD) of six crop by-products (raw palm oil mill efiluent (POME), dried POME, palm kernel cake, palm press fibre, cocoa pods and rice straw) and the leaves of two legumes (Leucaenti lercocep;Wa and Gliricid:n sepiurn) were measured. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to compare and classify the feeds according to chemical composition and degradability. Lianin ooorlv differentiated between feeds and was ~oorlv related lo 48 h DMD: the maior anomalies w&e with rice straw and Gliricidiu (low lignin, lox bMd) and cocoa pods (high lignin;higb DMD). The xylose:arabinose ratio, an indicator ofbcmicellulose digestion, was higher in the legumes than in the by-products. The ratio of rapidly degradable (arabinose+glucose) to slowly degradable (xylose+ uronic acids) sugars was not a good indicator of cell wall digestion; the correlation with 48 h NDF degradability (NDFD) was only 0.69. Cluster analysis showed that conventional classitication of the feeds into by-products and legumes did not reflect their compositional or degradability attributes. These attributes were also poorly related to each other. Two unusual feeds were identified, cocoa pods and palm kernel cake.

 

1. Fixed-bed fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbial Fermentation of Rice Straw: Nutritive Composition

and In Vitro Digestibility of the Fermentation Products

YOUN W. HAN I

Western Regional Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department ofAgriculture,

Berkeley, California 94710

Received for publication 18 November 1974

Rice straw was fermented with Cellulomonas sp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. Microbial cells and undigested residue, as well as chemically treated (NaOH or NH4OH) and untreated straws, were analyzed for nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility. In a typical fermentation, 75% of the rice straw substrate was digested, and 18.6% of the total substrate weight that disappeared was recovered as microbial protein. The microbial cell fraction was 37% protein and 5% crude fiber; the residue was 12% protein and 45% crude fiber. The microbial protein amino acid profile was similar to alfalfa, except for less cysteine. The microbial cells had more thiamine and less niacin than Torula yeast. In vitro digestibility of the microbial protein was 41.2 to 55%; that of cellulose was 52%. (More, pdf)

 

 

Paper Title        : Rice straw fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Authors            : L. Gao, H. Yang, X. Wang, Z, Huang, M. Ishii, Y. Igarashi and Z Cui

Journal name    : Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 2742-2748

 

The title is so interesting, simple and informative as it shows an idea about the utilization of the by product of rice straw (RS) by using biotechnologyy method. In this regard lacto acid bacteria (LAB) play as important agent to improve the RS quality or predigest the rice straw. (more…)

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Effects of palm oil and calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids in fattening diets on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of lambs

T. Mansoa,, T. Castro b, A.R. Mantec´on c, V. Jimeno d

a A´rea de Produccio´n Animal, Escuela Te´cnica Superior de Ingenier´ıas Agrarias, Universidad de

Valladolid,Avd. de Madrid, 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain

b Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,

28040 Madrid, Spain

c Estaci´on Agr´ıcola Experimental, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 788, 24080 Le´on, Spain

d Departamento de Producci´on Animal, Escuela T´ecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agr´onomos,

Universidad Polit´ecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Abstract (pdf)

The effects on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of inclusion of palm oil (PO, VETALGRAS®) or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CaF, MAGNAPAC®), at two levels, in diets of growing lambs were determined. Experimental diets consisted of barley straw and one of five concentrate supplements: control (C, no fat added), low level of PO (LPO, 25 g PO/kg), low level of CaF (LCaF, 31 g CaF/kg), high level of PO (HPO, 41 g PO/kg) and high level of CaF (HCaF, 50 g CaF/kg). Concentrations of supplemental fatty acids in the diets were 25 and 41 g/kg for the two supplementation levels. Concentrates with added fat were formulated to be isonitrogenousand isoenergetic and the five supplements had the same energy:protein ratio. The experiment was completed with 30 male Ojalada lambs (6 lambs per treatment) from weaning (initial live weight 14.1±0.5 kg) until 25 kg live weight. Inclusion of fat decreased digestibility of acid detergent fibre (0.525 versus 0.438, P<0.05) and increased ether extract digestibility (0.645 versus 0.770, P<0.05). Ether extract (EE) digestibility increased (LPO and LCaF versus HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when the level of added fat increased (0.727 versus 0.814). There was a significant effect of interaction (P<0.05) between the level and type of fat on the organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility of the diets. Diets HPO presented lower digestibility values (LPO versus HPO, P<0.05) than LPO with regard to OM (0.844 versus 0.819) and NDF (0.503 versus 0.435). Nevertheless,

this effect was not observed when fat was added in the form of calcium soaps (LCaF versus HCaF, P>0.05). At the low level of fat inclusion, OM digestibility was greater when fat was in the form of PO than when it was as CaF (0.844 in LPO versus 0.823 in LCaF, P<0.05). At the high level of fat inclusion, NDF digestibility was greater when fat was included in the form of CaF rather than PO (0.435 in LPO versus 0.500 in HCaF, P<0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) and days to 25 kg were not affected by the treatments. The feed conversion ratio (FCR, g DMI/g daily gain) was lower (C versus LPO, LCaF, HPO and HCaF, P<0.05) when fat was added to the diets than control animals (3.21 versus 2.86). The treatments studied produced no differences in carcass yield. Statistically significant differences in chemical composition and energy content of carcass and non-carcass components were not observed. Inclusion of up to 41 g of fat from palm oil or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids per kilogram of the concentrate of growing lambs improves EE digestibility and the feed conversion ratio without affecting carcass yield and body chemical composition. Inclusion of palm oil fatty acids as calcium soaps avoided the negative effects on fibre digestibility observed when 41 g PO/kg were added to the diet.

© 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lambs; Palm oil; Calcium soaps; Digestibility; Animal performance; Body composition

 

International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT 2008) Use of micro-filtered recovered POME sludge as fish feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

M. Ahmed2, M. Aliyu-Paiko3,A. R. Nik Norulaini2,R. Hashim3 *A. Ahmad1.

1Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

2School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

3Laboratory of Feeds and Feeding Management, Aqua-culture Research Group, School of Biological Sciences,

Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author. Phone: +6046532214 Fax: +6046573678

ABSTRACT (pdf)

The principle of membrane micro-filtration technology was employed to filter fresh palm oil mill effluent (POME). Dead-end configured filtration system was used to recover substantial amounts of the suspended solids and oil & grease with appreciable removal efficiency for COD, TSS, TS and O&G. The dried sludge (DSO) was used as a feed major ingredient together with defatted fishmeal to formulate a diet. Three different diets were tested on Nile tilapia; O. niloticus fingerlings comprising of DSO mixed with defatted fishmeal, crude palm oil (CPO) and defatted fishmeal and a third group of fingerlings fed with Fish oil (FO) mixed with defatted fishmeal as a control. The growth of all fingerlings was monitored every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks. The result showed that there is significant growth performance in fish fed with DSO indicating that it can be used as a fish feed ingredient to supply some proteins and lipids.

Key words: Feed ingredient, Growth, Micro-filtration, POME, Tilapia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of Processing of Oil Palm Frond on Palatability in Bali Cows

M. Afdal12, S Syarif1, A Kasim21

1Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia.

2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia

 

Introduction Palm oil frond (POF) is one of the by-products from palm oil plantations and is indicative of the disturbance to the environment in Indonesia and Malaysia as development of the palm oil industry in this area nowadays. Indonesia Statistical Biro (2006) reported that the production of POF was around 10,869,365 t from around 3,682,900 ha of palm oil plantation in Indonesia. Alimon and Hair Bejo (1995) reported that the chemical composition of POF is 47, 385, 787 556 g kg-1 and 5.65 MJ kg-1 for crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and metabolisable energy respectively. On the other hand, this product might be used as an alternative ruminant feed. Based on preliminary study, palm oil usually has 48 fronds and each frond has 250 to 350 leaves. Parts of POF that can be utilized as a feed are peeled frond, around 30 % of the fresh frond. PF could be fed to the animal in term of fresh chopped frond, frond meal and frond pellet. There is however no information dealing with POF especially its palatability and therefore a study was undertaken to assess the value of this by-product in diets of ruminants.  The aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical composition and the palatability of POF, and proportion of POF eaten by animal.

 

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Pedoman Pengolahan Limbah Kelapa Sawit

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EKSPLORASI HIJAUAN PAKAN KUDA DAN KANDUNGAN

NUTRISINYA

(Exploration of Forages for Horse and its Nutritive Value)

MANSYUR, U. HIDAYAT TANUWIRIA dan DENY RUSMANA

Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung

ABSTRACT (pdf)

Information of kind, nutrive value, and used of forages for horse is limited. The aim of this research was to know the kind and nutrive value of forages for horse. The research was conducted in Kecamatan Kadungora, Wanaraja, and Bl Limbangan Kabupaten Garut West Java. Analysis of nutrive value of forage was done at Laboratory of Forage Crops and Laboratory of Ruminant Nutrition and Feed Chemistry. Survey method and stratified random sampling were used in this research. Research result showed that feeding system of horse farmers based on the habit from forefathers, the mean of nutrive values from Oplismenus burmanni, Cynodon dactylon and Brachiaria mutica were good as forages. Based on botanical composition and nutrive value, development and improvement of Oplismenus burmanni, Cynodon dactylon and Brachiaria mutica were needed.

Key Words: Forage, Botanical Composation, Nutrive Value, Horse

 

 

Degradation of tropical roughages and concentrate feeds in the rumen

 M.N.M. Ibrahima, S. Tammingab, G. Zemmelinka

 

 

 

aDepartment of Animal Production Systems, Agricultural University, P.O. Box 338,

6700 AH Wageningen. The Netherlands

bDepartment of Animal Nutrition, Agricultural University, P. 0. Box 338. 6700 AH Wageningen,

The Netherlands

Abstract(more, pdf) 

Degradation characteristics of four grasses, three leguminous fodder species, jack leaves, coconut meal and rice bran were studied using the nylon bag procedure. Bag incubations up to 10 days were performed in the rumen of cows fed on a ration consisting of 50% wheat straw and 50% hay.

Degradation characteristics for organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and nitrogen (N) were evaluated using a two fraction model with a fixed undegradable fraction ( V) and lag time. Among the grasses, the degradable fractions (D) of OM and NDF in NB21 and guinea grass were significantly higher (P <0.05) than in the other two grasses. Guinea grass not only had the highest N content (20.3 g kg- ’ dry matter (DM) ), but also its D fraction was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the other grasses. The rate of degradation (/cd) for all components studied did not differ significantly between grasses. Unlike in grass species, the D and U values obtained for OM, NDF,

and N in legumes species did not differ significantly, but the k,, values were significantly (P < 0.05) different.

Except for the long lag phase in jack leaves, which ranged from 10.4 h for NDF to 11.5 h for N, all other degradation-characteristics were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for grasses and rice bran. The poor nutritive value of rice bran obtained from a commercial mill was reflected in the extremely high U fraction (47%, 66% and 22% for OM, NDF and N, respectively). Nevertheless, the degradation characteristics (D and kd) for N were significantly better than for grasses. Coconut meal had the highest potentially degradable fraction (D+ water soluble fraction).

Rumen degradable N content in grasses ranged from 41% (guinea) to 60% (ruzi), and in legumes from 69% (leucaena) to 79% (glyricidia). About 67% of the N present in jack leaves and rice bran was rumen degradable.

Keywords: Tropical feedstuffs; Nylon bag technique

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Penggunaan Feses Sebagai Pengganti Cairan Rumen Pada Teknik
In Vitro : Estimasi Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan
Bahan Organik Beberapa Jenis Rumput
M. Afdal dan Edi Erwan
Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Jambi kampus Mandalo Darat Jambi 36361

PENDAHULUAN
Di beberapa negara Eropa dan Amerika telah dilakukan usaha pemanfaatan inokulan feses sebagai pengganti cairan rumen dalam mengevaluasi kecernaan pakan ternak. Berbagai usaha telah dilakukan dalam pemanfaatan feses sebagai alternatif pengganti cairan rumen. Balfe (1985) pertama kali menggunakan cairan feses sebagai pengganti cairan rumen dalam teknik Dua Langkah Tilley and Terry. Kemudian diikuti oleh Akhter (1994) dan Omed dkk (1998) menggunakan feses dalam teknik in vitro gas. baca selanjutnya pdf

Animal Feed Science and Technology 54 ( 1995) 8 1-92

 

Degradation of tropical roughages and concentrate

feeds in the rumen

M.N.M. Ibrahim”~“, S. Tammingab, G. Zemmelink”

“Department of Animal Production Systems, Agricultural University, P.O. Box 338,

6700 AH Wageningen. The Netherlands

bDepartment of Animal Nutrition, Agricultural University, P. 0. Box 338. 6700 AH Wageningen,

The Netherlands

Received 15 June 1994; accepted I7 November 1994

Abstract

Degradation characteristics of four grasses, three leguminous fodder species, jack leaves, coconut meal and rice bran were studied using the nylon bag procedure. Bag incubations up to 10 days were performed in the rumen of cows fed on a ration consisting of 50% wheat straw and 50% hay. Degradation characteristics for organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and nitrogen (N) were evaluated using a two fraction model with a fixed undegradable fraction ( V) and lag time. Among the grasses, the degradable fractions (D) of OM and NDF in NB21 and guinea grass were significantly higher (P <0.05) than in the other two grasses. Guinea grass not only had the highest N content (20.3 g kg- dry matter (DM) ), but also its D fraction was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the other grasses. The rate of degradation (/cd) for all components studied did not differ significantly between grasses. Unlike in grass species, the D and U values obtained for OM, NDF, and N in legumes species did not differ significantly, but the k,, values were significantly (P < 0.05) different.

Except for the long lag phase in jack leaves, which ranged from 10.4 h for NDF to 11.5 h for N, all other degradation-characteristics were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for grasses and rice bran. The poor nutritive value of rice bran obtained from a commercial mill was reflected in the extremely high U fraction (47%, 66% and 22% for OM, NDF and N, respectively). Nevertheless, the degradation characteristics (D and kd) for N were significantly better than for grasses. Coconut meal had the highest potentially degradable fraction (D+ water soluble fraction). Rumen degradable N content in grasses ranged from 41% (guinea) to 60% (ruzi), and in legumes from 69% (leucaena) to 79% (glyricidia). About 67% of the N present in jack leaves and rice bran was rumen degradable. (more read pdf)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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